THE BURNING OF THE 'VOLTURNO'
AN EXTRAORDINARY OCTOBER 1913
MARINE TRAGEDY - PAGE 1
Welcome - however you happen to arrive on this page! David Griffiths, a Welsh Professor whose 'Lake Applet' set me on the road which now ends at this page, used to say: 'Put the kettle on. We have visitors'. NEXT PAGE
Before advancing into the site, a very brief comment. As I write these particular words, in early 2008, I must say that I am both astonished & gratified that the site has grown as much as it has over the years. From just a couple of pages in 2002 or 2003 (I cannot remember when it all started) to 80 or so pages now. In very large part due to the data, imagery & other support provided by site visitors. To all of those who have contributed material over the years, I express my thanks! And to everyone else, I bid you 'Welcome'!
And, if you want to make a comment, a site guestbook is here. Test.
On this page ... A site index, Thomas Hemy & the Volturno, Jan Daamen's Volturno site, What happened to Volturno in a nutshell, What Volturno looked like, Volturno the name, Other Volturno voyages, Data sought, a site search facility. And last, but very much not least, a thank you list
To search for specific text on this page, just press 'CTRL + F' & then enter your search term.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE WHOLE SUBJECT Page 01 Thomas Hemy and the Volturno. (this page) THE site for information about the whole matter of the Volturno.
A short description of the tragedy.
Some images of the Volturno.
A list of Volturno related data the webmaster seeks to locate. And a thank you list.
A site search facility. In fact now on the bottom of every site page.
WHAT HAPPENED? A NUMBER OF DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNTS Page 02 The first half of the full text of Sir Arthur Spurgeon's 1913 book entitled 'The Burning of the Volturno' with an image of Sir Arthur Spurgeon. Page 03 The second half of the full text of Sir Arthur Spurgeon's 1913 book entitled 'The Burning of the Volturno'. Page 04 Other descriptions of the tragedy, in published books. Page 05 A two page illustrated article from 'The Literary Digest' of Oct. 25, 1913. Page 06 A four page illustrated article from 'Sea Classics' of Jul. 1993, written by Owen Gault. Page 07 Some articles published in 'The Pathfinder', 'Christian Herald Magazine' and 'The Independent', all in late 1913. Page 08 A most interesting text from a 1927 book - 'Tales of SOS and TTT' by B. Copplestone. Clearly includes information made available from the Board of Trade inquiry into the disaster. Page 09 A page of articles from the New York Times of 1913. A part, at least, of what that venerable newspaper said about the Volturno disaster, and they truly said a lot! The page is really too big now and there is much more text to first print and then transcribe. Page 12 A page number to record the Volturno content of two issues of Leslie's Magazine, specifically the issues of Oct. 23, 1913 and Oct. 30, 1913. Page 13 A page of the Volturno content of 'Famous Sea Rescues', by Karl Baarslag. Originally published in 1935 as 'SOS to the Rescue'. Page 14 A four page article from 'Stag' of Nov. 1958, written by A. A. Hoehling. With a most impressive illustration by Joe Little. Page 15 Most of the Volturno content contained in the Oct. 18, 1913 edition (# 3686) of 'L'Illustration' published in France. A text in French and most of the images. Page 16 Two for the price of one! A three page article from 'Sea Breezes' of Jun. 1963, written by Charles Cowper, who was serving aboard Carmania in 1913. And an article from 'The Outlook' of Oct. 25, 1913 with related imagery. Page 17 A large page related to the Board of Trade Inquiry into the Volturno disaster. The Court's conclusion and the court coverage as it was published in the London Times. The report itself? It is now on site. Next item. Page 18 The Board of Trade Inquiry Report, published in London on Jan. 16, 1914. RELATED MATERIAL Page 19 A page that may help families who had ancestors on the Volturno and seek data on the Ellis Island site. Page 21 A page with an amazing amount of family data re many of the survivors. The very detailed report indeed of the American Red Cross Volturno relief activities conducted in 1913 and 1914. Page 22 The first page about Ellis Island. A start, at least, to try to cover that most interesting of subjects. Page 23 The second page about Ellis Island. Page 24 The third page about Ellis Island! With some very fine images indeed. Page 25 And yet a fourth page about Ellis Island! With some more very fine images. Page 26 And a fifth page about Ellis Island! As fine quality images continue to surface! Page 27 A Volturno image page, now with two superb contemporary artworks of the Volturno disaster - and a fine contemporary postcard. Page 28 A second Volturno image page, just commenced, since page 27 was too large! It features the very best image of Volturno the webmaster has yet seen - 2nd image down. Page 29 A third Volturno image page, especially to present all 21 images that appeared in the Arthur Spurgeon book entitled 'The Burning of the Volturno'. Page 30 A fourth Volturno image page. Page 31 Interesting but unrelated images. Page 32 Other Volturno related information of interest. Page 33 Selected Volturno related extracts from contemporary newspaper reports. Page 35 The story of Walter Trentepohl, who swam for his life and lived to tell the tale. Page 36 A page about the crew of the Volturno. But by no means complete and likely will never be so! Page 37 The biographical data that we know about Francis J. D. Inch, Captain of the Volturno at the time of the disaster. Data is emerging! Page 38 What the Illustrated London News reported about the Volturno disaster, primarily in its Oct. 18, 1913 issue. A page in progress. With some coverage from The Graphic also, now. Page 39 What the London Times reported about the Volturno disaster. But not any of its coverage related to the Board of Trade Inquiry (see page 17 above). Page 42 The Volturno content of the Oct 26/Nov 3, 1913 issue of La Domenica Del Corriere. Page 43 A page about the various awards that were granted respecting the Volturno rescue. Page 44 A Volturno awards summary page created by Bernard de Neumann. Page 50 A time-line of the tragedy. Page 51 A limited page about The Quiver, a magazine that granted Captain Inch its 'Heroes Gold Medal'. Page 52 A link page, newly created in Feb. 2005 and long overdue! Page 53 A few items about Liverpool. THE RESCUE FLEET (in alpha sequence) Page 54 Asian - A page of limited content about the S.S. Asian of Liverpool. Page 56 Carmania - The first of six pages about the S.S. Carmania, a general page re the lead ship of the rescue fleet. Page 57 Carmania - A second general page about the S.S. Carmania, which seems to have developed into an image page that you will, I hope, enjoy. Page 58 Carmania - The third Carmania page, mainly re the Carmania / Cap Trafalgar sea battle. Page 59 Carmania - The fourth Carmania page, re the Carmania / Cap Trafalgar sea battle and other matters. Page 60 Carmania - A page for other accounts of the sea battle between Carmania and Cap Trafalgar. Page 61 Carmania - A page for prints and artworks that depict the sea battle between Carmania and Cap Trafalgar. Page 62 Carmania - A seventh general page about the S.S. Carmania, which seems to be developing into another general page. Page 64 Czar - A page about the S.S. Czar with now an increasing amount of content. Page 65 Devonian - A page dedicated to the S.S. Devonian, one of the rescue ships. Page 66 Devonian - The first of two pages dedicated to the S.S. Devonian's crew members. Page 67 Devonian - The second page dedicated to the S.S. Devonian's crew members. Page 68 Devonian - A page dedicated to the S.S. Volturno's passengers saved by Devonian. Page 69 Devonian - The fifth page dedicated to the S.S. Devonian. And also to Leyland Lines. Page 70 Grosser Kurfürst - The first of four pages about the S.S. Grosser Kurfürst, which landed 105 survivors at New York. Page 71 Grosser Kurfürst - The second of four pages about the S.S. Grosser Kurfürst. Page 72 Grosser Kurfürst - A page in progress about the Volturno survivors, rescued by the Grosser Kurfürst. Page 73 Grosser Kurfürst - The fourth page about the S.S. Grosser Kurfürst. Page 75 Kroonland - The first of five pages dedicated to the S.S. Kroonland, another of the rescue ships. Page 76 Kroonland - The second of the pages dedicated to the S.S. Kroonland. Page 77 Kroonland - A page about the Volturno survivors who were rescued by the Kroonland. Page 78 Kroonland - Yet another & 4th page re the Kroonland! With some fine images so far. Page 79 Kroonland - A 5th page re the Kroonland! Page 80 La Touraine - A page dedicated to the S.S. La Touraine, which landed 40 survivors at Le Havre, France. Page 81 La Touraine - A second page dedicated to the S.S. La Touraine. Page 82 La Touraine - And now a third page dedicated to the S.S. La Touraine, as more data is received. Page 83 La Touraine - And now a fourth page dedicated to the S.S. La Touraine re content of 'En Transatlantique' an 1890s volume by H. Lacapelle. Page 84 La Touraine - A fifth page dedicated to the S.S. La Touraine, a page of postcard or map images of or related to the vessel, or the port of Le Havre, etc. Page 85 Minneapolis - The first page dedicated to the S.S. Minneapolis. Page 86 Minneapolis - And the second page re the S.S. Minneapolis as more imagery is received. Page 88 Narragansett - A page about the S.S. Narragansett - now with an increasing amount of content. More data is needed. Maybe you can help! Page 91 Rappahannock - The first page about the S.S. Rappahannock - good progress but no vessel image yet. Need help! Page 92 Rappahannock - The second page about the S.S. Rappahannock with Volturno passenger related data. Page 93 Seydlitz - A page dedicated to the S.S. Seydlitz. Page 94 Seydlitz - A second page dedicated to the S.S. Seydlitz. Of increasing content today. Page 95 Seydlitz - A third S.S. Seydlitz page. Of postcards & other memorabilia. Page 97 Canada, Campanello, Florizel, Royal Edward and Uranium. - A page with data and images as available on vessels less closely associated with Volturno.
The Webmaster's interest in the Volturno came about because a British artist named Thomas M. Hemy, painted the tragedy. I have a website devoted to that artist, (first page is here) & his Volturno work (here & here) is just one of his many lifetime works (and in truth, not one of his better works). It appeared as a print in the 'Chums' magazine issue dated May 9, 1914 (No. 1,130 Vol. XXII at page 628) but other sources state it came from an Apr. 18, 1914 issue despite what the Webmaster saw in the 1914 Annual. The original painting? That is a very different matter! I have no idea where it might be. But I do have some words re the original. The same source has advised me that the work was painted to be presented to Sir Arthur Spurgeon - 'I believe it was given to Spurgeon by the British Press in thanks for his work on their behalf, more I do not know.'
But if YOU can provide me with a large scan, that would indeed be most welcome.
There is, so far as I can see, really only one website (other than this one) which tells the story of the Volturno - the most extensive website run by Jan Daamen of the Netherlands. There are many many links re the Volturno but they all lead to Jan's fine site. He has collected a mass of data on the subject, & those who had family members involved in the tragedy, as passengers or crew members, perhaps, will find a great many pages of detailed information on his site. My purpose, in these pages, started out to be more limited - to tell you what happened, hopefully in a few paragraphs, so that the visitor will understand the story that inspired Thomas Hemy to make his painting. But since then the site has expanded a bit! As you can see.
Let me first say that it would seem that there was more than one Volturno - strangely there were two vessels of that name plying the seas at the very same time & both built in England. How can that be so? There was a vessel of that name built in 1888 that was damaged by fire & explosion in its cargo of sulphur on Jul. 26, 1912. It was towed & during towing it apparently collided with two ships in Hull roads & was further damaged. That particular Volturno, principally a cargo ship (but it may have carried occasional passengers), was scrapped at Briton Ferry in Oct. 1912. This data came from Ruffin Cooper who told me that he was tracing ancestors who left from Antwerp & learned this information from a person in Belgium. Thank you Ruffin! Here is more about that earlier Volturno. And this may well be the vessel.
But I really digress since that is not the Volturno that concerns us with these pages.
The Volturno that concerns us was a twin screw, triple expansion engined steam ship, designed as a cargo ship but used as a passenger liner, that plied the seas between Europe & the United States with its cargo of immigrants from Eastern Europe & Russia. It was built by Fairfield Govan in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1906, for Navigazione Italo-Americano, of Naples, Italy, & then, on Nov. 11, 1906 acquired by Volturno Steam Ship Co. Ltd. (D. G. Pinkney & Co.). And later (Mar. 1908) leased or chartered to the New York and Continental Line. She was of 3,602 gross tons, with a length of 340 feet, a breadth of 43 feet & a speed of 14 knots (some small confusion about those numbers or so it would seem). I now think that the builder was, to be exact, 'The Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Limited', of Govan, (pronounced 'govern'), near Glasgow. And that she was built for the price of £80,000. She could carry over 1,000 passengers almost all of whom would be in third class. In her brief life, she had multiple owners. In 1909 she was sold & went into service for Canadian Northern Steamship Company on the Rotterdam to New York run. And in 1910 (Apr. 4, I have read) she was leased or chartered to the Uranium Steamship Company. A working ship & not fancy in any way, or so it would appear.
I am advised by Kathryn Atkin that every ship has an official number. And Volturno's number was 123737. Thanks Kathryn! I now find that thanks to Ted Finch & the 'Mariners' site, a list of such numbers is available here. I found data re most other Volturno rescue vessels by entering the vessel name in the search engine on another 'Mariners' site page, specifically this page.
The final voyage of the Volturno commenced normally as it left Rotterdam on Oct. 2, 1913, destined for New York, with a stop en route in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It was under the command of an English captain, Captain Francis J. D. Inch. The Board of Trade Inquiry report tells us there were 654 persons aboard (561 passengers & 93 crew), the passengers mainly being immigrants including babes in arms, heading to a new start in the New World. Its cargo included quantities of oil, rags, burlap & chemicals, all highly inflammable, alas.
On Oct. 9, 1913 in the early morning, a fire broke out on the Volturno, then in the mid Atlantic in a heavy storm & high seas. What caused it? It would seem that nobody knows for sure. Possibly it was caused by a Russian steerage passenger who was smoking a cigarette on board. To avoid being caught & a $5 fine for smoking, he may have dropped his cigarette through a hole in the deck. The hold directly beneath contained the passengers' luggage, which soon was burning fiercely. More likely it was that the casks of stored chemicals broke free as the ship rolled in the heavy seas & that those chemicals then smouldered & burst into flames. Regardless of the reason, fire did break out & spread through the ship. Four crewmen lost their lives in the flames. Three great explosions occurred. A distress call was sent out by the then relatively new 'wireless'. Lifeboats were lowered into the high seas & capsized or were crushed.
Eleven ships responded & raced to the scene, the first to arrive being the Carmania. Rescue was attempted but boats sent out at great risk were unable to pick up passengers due to the rough sea. The ship continued to burn & the desperate passengers assembled at the stern of the vessel. Next morning, the gale had subsided & the sea was calmer, calmed no doubt in part by heavy oil, spread on the sea by the tanker Narragansett. The fleet took off a total of 520 survivors (per Board of Trade Inquiry Report 457 passengers & 63 crew), with the Grosser Kurfürst taking the most survivors (106). Captain Inch was the last person to leave the stricken vessel with the ship's papers in hand & with his dog in his arms. So 134 people died. The incident was witnessed by all of that assembled fleet, unable to help for many many hours until the weather & sea conditions improved.
The conduct of the Captain was heroic, so I read. But there are conflicting reports as to the condition of the lifeboats & the fire hoses & the behaviour of some of the crew. Some passengers leapt overboard, to avoid a probable death by fire. A French couple, recently married, is said to have committed suicide in this way, clasped in each other's arms. In its time, it was an impressive & inspiring demonstration of the value of the 'new-fangled' wireless telegraph.
The 'burning' of the Volturno? Oh yes. A raging & uncontrollable inferno with flames rising eighty feet into the air & clouds of black smoke - described as being 'one big furnace', 'a sea of fire' and 'a blazing beacon in the night'. Metal work & porthole glass melted away in the intense heat. And the wreck? It floated, a danger to shipping of course, for over a week after it was abandoned until Oct. 17, 1913 when late in the day, the Dutch tanker Charlois found it. It was still burning, all those days later! Next morning, they boarded what was left of the vessel, opened the sea valves & permitted it to sink.
The first page of Jan Daamen's site is here. Do visit! He has a wealth of information on the subject. Including a personal & quite emotional family story here written by Cary Ginell whose family were aboard the Volturno.
Visitors will surely be interested in the headline in the New York Times on Sunday, Oct. 12, 1913, announcing the disaster. And interested also in seeing an image of Captain Inch, the splendid captain of the ill-fated Volturno. Both are now at the top of this page. The New York Times image is presented courtesy of Ellen Karp while the image of Captain Inch, scanned from the Spurgeon book, is presented thanks to Tony Jones of North Wales.
And here is a composite image to give you an idea of what the Volturno looked like. The large image came from here, while the small image at lower left, which seems to be of the Volturno on fire, came I believe from this Russian site which seems again to be operative. The drawing, the work of Duncan Haws, came from Jan Daamen's site, but originated, I see, at the Ellis Island On-Line site.
An image of the assembled fleet at the disaster scene, courtesy of a primarily Titanic site (which seems now to no longer be operative). I did try to level the horizon in the image but lost too much detail when I attempted to do so. Now one would think, from looking at that image, that the seas were relatively calm and not as high and rough as they in fact were when disaster struck. It needs, I think, an artist, rather than a photographer, to be able to convey in an image the savagery of a high sea. But a most interesting image none the less. In view of the bad link above, I searched & have now seen the image elsewhere, described as being 'Daylight on the morning of the 10th'. And underneath is an image of the Volturno that originated (thanks!) with The Mariners Museum. I do not know in which year the photograph was taken. It would seem that the Volturno had lots of lifeboats! But then there normally would be more than 1,100 souls aboard so many lifeboats would, of course, be needed.
But the very finest image of the Volturno that the webmaster has yet seen is that on the second Volturno image page of this site, and specifically right here. Do see it! It appears there thanks to Kathryn Atkin & the 'Kathryn Atkin Collection'.
The webmaster has no idea, so far, why the vessel was called the Volturno. Unless, that is, the fact that the Volturno is a major river (in the Italian context) of the Naples area of Italy & that a steamship company from Naples (Navigazione Italo-Americano) had it built in the first place is explanation enough. I have read that the word itself derives from 'Volturnus' from 'volvere' - to roll. The same origin as the Volvo automobile, I presume. How that relates to OUR Volturno is at present quite unclear. And, there now seems to be a white hybrid lily named Volturno, for reasons unknown to the webmaster!
I am sure that many families seek data on the Volturno but re earlier trips. This list of earlier arrival dates of the vessel in North America, may prove to be of assistance. It would seem also that there was a later Volturno. If you go here, and type in 'is exactly' Volturno as the ship name, you come to a Volturno page with some manifests at the bottom of the list with dates in 1921 & 1924. And you can access, from that page I see, lots of manifest data re the earlier trips of 'our' Volturno.
A message from Luis Havas, from Argentina but now resident in Mexico, enquired about the maiden voyage of Volturno, a question to which I, alas, had no answer. Now Luis believes that that voyage, commanded by Captain James Harrison, left Genoa for Buenos Aires via Naples & Gibraltar, & arrived at Buenos Aires on Feb. 6, 1907. If you can confirm or amend that data, it would surely be appreciated.
A listing of items that would, if available, add to my limited body of knowledge of the Volturno matter. I do not really want the following, per se. Just whatever new data that they might prove to contain. If you could help in any way, drop me a line.
1 Images of the rescue ships. Any images of the rescue ships would be most welcome - most especially images of Asian, Czar, Devonian, Narragansett and Rappahannock. 2 What Mr. C. F. Hart said in the 'Daily Mail' in mid October 1913. The Illustrated London News page (linked above) refers to the Volturno story by C. F. Hart published in the 'Daily Mail'. The exact publication date is not known, but is likely in the early part of the period of Oct. 13/17, 1913. 3 Images of ship interiors Any interior images of the Volturno itself or of any of the many vessels that participated in the rescue. 4 'Philadelphia Public Ledger' newspaper. The pictorial section of the issue dated Oct. 26, 1913 contained, I understand, a page with many photographs depicting the 'Volturno' rescue. 5 'Collier's, The National Weekly' magazine. The Nov. 13, 1913 issue of Collier's contains, I understand, a page of photos about the Volturno disaster. 6 'The Graphic' of October 18, 1913. Contains at least two disaster images (& possibly an article?), i.e. content which would be of interest. The smaller image is new to the webmaster. 7 'Everybody's' - issue of April 25, 1953. A U.K. magazine. Contains an article about Volturno, of content quite unknown. 8 'Süddeutsche Illustrierte Zeitung Jahresband' Issue #43 dated Oct. 26, 1913 contains a half page of text and a drawing. It would be good to get some German coverage in these pages. 9 'The Sea-Raiders' by E. Keble Chatterton, first published in 1931 The volume contains, I understand, both text and images re the sea battle between Carmania and Cap Trafalgar in 1914. Carmania was the lead vessel in the Volturno rescue. That most interesting of sea battles is covered extensively on site pages 58 thru 61. Such data as I now have about the volume's content can be seen here. 10 'Journal des Voyages' A French illustrated weekly newspaper, which looked, in an e-Bay item, to be similar to 'Le Petit Journal'. A report on the Volturno disaster, presumably in a late Oct. 1913 issue. 11 'Le National Illustré' A French (in the French language at least , maybe Belgian) illustrated weekly newspaper. Issue #44 of 1913, of 8 pages, dated Nov. 2, 1913, contains an article entitled Le sinistre maritime du "Volturno".
Antonio Angioni, of Italy
Kathryn Atkin, of Sheffield, U.K.
Peter Baron of Larne, County Antrim, Northern Ireland
Peter Beddard of Willingdon, Eastbourne, Sussex, U.K.
Barbara Bignold of the U.K.
Carol Blackman, of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Timothy Bradshaw, of New York, New York, U.S.A.
Marg & Clem Breuer, of Townsville, North Queensland, Australia
Timothy Bradshaw, of New York, New York, U.S.A.
Raymond Brown, of Kinmel Bay, near Rhyl, North Wales, U.K.
Tracey Brown of Milton Keynes, U.K.
Dirk Bulens of Antwerp, Belgium
David Cain, of Brisbane, Australia
Enzo Calabresi, of Trento, Italy
Pauline Campbell, of Mirfield, West Yorkshire, U.K.
Jennifer Cole of Vange, Essex, U.K.
Steve Corcoran of Liverpool, U.K.
Lyndon Comstock of Bolinas, California, U.S.A.
Eric Czerwonka, of Amherstview, near Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Jan Daamen of the Netherlands, whose definitive Volturno website, says it all D.D. of New York City
John Daymond, of Caerleon, Monmouthshire, England
Dirk Deschamps, of Antwerp, Belgium
Dr. Roy C. De Selms, of California
Bernard De Neumann, of The City University in London, England
Dmitriev Dmitrij, of Riga, Latvia
Charles Dragonette, of Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A., a marine history buff & e-Bay vendor
Paul Edwards, of Sussex, England
John Erwin, of the State of Victoria, Australia
Ailish Evans, of Ireland
Jonathan S. Farley, of Farnborough, Hampshire, U.K.
Douglas Fraser, of Tenby, Pembrokeshire, U.K.
Mike Francis, of S.E. London, U.K.
David Fletcher, of Plymouth, U.K.
Glenn Frazee of the U.S.A.
Gill Georgeson, of Orpington, Kent, U.K.
Cary Ginell, of Thousand Oaks, California, U.S.A.
Steve Godwin, of Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.A.
Arnold Graboyes of Vallejo, California, U.S.A.
Melissa Groeneveld, of White Lake, near Pontiac, Michigan, U.S.A.
Dr. Michael Gross of Oxford, U.K.
Carolyn Hampson, of Australia
Margaret Hampton, of Pontypridd near Cardiff in South Wales, U.K.
Luis Havas, of Argentina, presently living in Mexico
Stan Hazlewood, of Leyland, Lancashire, U.K.
German Herrera, of Argentina
Ted Hiland of the Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Dr. Nick P. Hiley, of Canterbury, U.K.
Peter L. Horton of Staffordshire, U.K.
Chris Hughes, of the village of Wraysbury, Berkshire, England
Jim Hutchinson, of Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.
Pauline James, of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Greg Jefferys, historian of the Seydlitz, of Australia
David B. Johnson, of Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.
Tony Jones, of Whitford, Holywell, North Wales, U.K., or he was from there!
Rod Julkowski, of Plymouth, near Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.
Ellen Karp of Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A.
Susan Karp of San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Jonathan Kinghorn of Lexington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Maury Kitces of the U.S.A.
Rodolfo E. Knipp of Misiones, Argentina
Ian Lawler of Ireland
Jon Lawton, of Gloucestershire, U.K.
Valery Lebigot of France
Andrew Lennon of Plymouth, U.K.
Dawn Long of Arizona, U.S.A.
Werner Lyssens, of Belgium
Ian Macfarlane of Falkirk, near Edinburgh, Scotland
Lynn McMeans of Stockbridge, Georgia, U.S.A.
Tyann and Brian Miller of Lancaster County, Philadelphia, U.S.A., history buffs & e-Bay vendors
Keith Mills of Swansea, Wales
Senan Molony, of Ireland
Mike Morris of Bedfordshire, U.K.
Dianne McQuaid, of Colorado, U.S.A.
Dan Murphy, of Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Jean-Christophe Palthey of the 'Galerie Histoire et Curiosités', of 1 rue Fontaine in Paris, France. Don Poppe of Whitehall, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Philip Potter of Dublin, Ireland
Reto Raeth, of Zurich, Switzerland, whose 'Postcards Ocean Lines' website is here.
Susan L. (Linda) Robertson of the U.K.
Tom Schmitz of Luxembourg.
Markus Schnellinger, of Dresden, Germany
Don and Marlene Schuld, of New Jersey, U.S.A.
William Scimbe, of Binghamton, New York, U.S.A.
Avner Shats, of Haifa, Israel
Alexey Shirokoff of Moscow, Russia.
André J. (Jan) Smilts of Frankfurt, Germany
Chuck Spurgeon of Langley, British Columbia, Canada
Jerry Stevens, of Simpsonville, South Carolina, U.S.A.
Meurig Thomas, of Epsom, Surrey, U.K.
Colin Turner, author, of Bolton, Greater Manchester, U.K.
Henry Treece, of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Gordon Turner, of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, author of ' Empress of Britain: Canadian Pacific's Greatest Ship' (1, 2).
Robert Vervoort, of Antwerp, Belgium
Arthur Walters, Archivist of the village of Wraysbury, Berkshire, England - via Chris Hughes
Grace Weaver, of Kirkland, Washington, U.S.A., also an e-Bay vendor.
Chris Wheeler, of Devon, U.K.
Gordon White, of Bolton, Lancashire, U.K.
Georg Wilden, of Wüsting, nr. Oldenburg, Hamburg, Germany
John Winchester, of Rugby, Warwickshire, U.K., author of 'Strange, but True', a monthly column in U.K.’s 'Stamp Magazine'.
Ruediger Woberschal, of Germany
Susan and Dean Woodcock, of Lisle, New York, U.S.A.
Jeff Woods, of Arizona, U.S.A.
Hans R. Wüthrich, of Elsau, Switzerland
Mark J. Yurich, of Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
Not forgetting 'e-Bay', which is becoming a quite irreplaceable research tool
I thank you all!
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