THE BURNING OF THE 'VOLTURNO' - PAGE 21
THE RELIEF EFFORTS OF
THE AMERICAN RED CROSS

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In 1914, exact date unknown, a report was published by the American Red Cross of the relief activities which were undertaken for the survivors of the Volturno disaster. The report is in six sections, the last two sections of which comprised a financial statement & a list of donors. Re those sections may I just state that U.S. $6,521.64 was raised in contributions from the public. Not a very large sum of money! To that was added U.S. $5,000.00 from the American Red Cross Contingent Relief Fund, so a total of U.S. $11,521.64 was available to the Relief Committee. U.S. $9,757.80 was disbursed on relief & the sums dispensed were referenced in the report generally item by item with the particular case circumstances & details noted. While donor names were listed, no dollar amounts of individual donations were provided. But a portion of such data is, available in the New York Times issues of the time, & maybe all of the donations are, in fact, a matter of public record.

This page has been void of imagery for a long time. But no longer! A single composite image to grace the page is next. On the right is a portion of an image from Illustrated London News in Sep. 1916 depicting a Red Cross nurse at work in France in WWI (ex e-Bay). The other image is from this fine Russian based site, by 'Boris Feldblyum Collection', which I commend you visit for other fine Red Cross related posters.

Some of the report words are truly heartrending. I commend you to read particularly Section III of the material which follows.

The pamphlet report itself, from which this material was obtained is in the New York Public Library, part of a binder of material (Volume 69 entitled 'Charities') a bound set of 10 or 15 pamphlets issued by the Red Cross about their various charitable works.

We are able to provide the material here thanks to the diligence of Susan Karp from San Francisco, whose grandfather, David Karp, was a Volturno survivor. And the staff of the Humanities and Social Sciences Department, New York Reference Library (42nd Street Branch) who kindly permitted & provided photocopies of the fragile documents. For clarity on this page, I have placed the 'footnotes' in small type right where it appears in the original.

As you can read, the names used in the report for particular cases are stated to be fictitious - to protect the privacy of the immigrants concerned. However there is an immense amount of detail provided re all cases except for the single men. And with that detail, & the data now available from the Ellis Island site, it will surely be possible to identify many & possibly a very great many of the cases by manifest name. I think, that after 96 years, to identify names is permissible!

There are 16 1/4 pages of very small typed detail of the immigrants case by case - there are I believe 87 of those & 93 cases discussed in total! I probably will not record them all here, but will in due course attempt to select the most interesting of the cases, & identify them if that is indeed possible by Ellis Island & other records. And list them in the sequence as they were listed in the report. As a practical matter, I will start with the larger family groups, which are far easier to identify.

I have now identified all six families specifically referred to in Section III below. And made a very good start on the other 87 cases discussed. As I write this, I have identified (partially in a couple of cases) 53 of the total of 93 cases. Some of the others are proving to be most difficult to resolve. So I probably will not be able, without data from other sources, to identify them all, were I to even try to do so. Hopefully the data I provide below will assist members of those families in researching their family roots.


EMERGENCY RELIEF BY THE AMERICAN RED CROSS AFTER THE BURNING OF THE S. S. VOLTURNO, OCTOBER 10, 1913

This report of the administration of relief by the American Red Cross following the burning of the S. S. Volturno which occurred on October 10, 1913, is submitted by the Red Cross Emergency Relief Committee of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York.

I

    On Friday, October 10, 1913, a year and a half almost to the day after the sinking of the steamship TITANIC, the VOLTURNO of the Uranium S. S. Line was burned at sea. Its passengers were for the most part Poles and Austro-Hungarians, immigrants who were coming to this country in search of opportunities for work and home-making, or in order to join husbands and parents:
    The news of the catastrophe reached New York on Saturday afternoon, October 11, and this Committee, as in the case of the wreck of the TITANIC,
(A printed report of the work of this Committee following the wreck of the S.S. TITANIC was published in April, 1913, copies of which may be obtained by applying to the Director of the Charity Organization Society.) immediately began arrangements for the care of those who had been bereaved and rendered destitute by the disaster. The promptness and thoroughness with which this was accomplished again demonstrated the value of the affiliation with the American Red Cross of the Charity Organization Society, whose staff of trained workers and whose close association with other welfare agencies furnished ready means for the execution of plans for relief.
    The chairman of the Committee was accorded the hearty aid of Mayor Adolph S. Kline, who at once published appeals in the newspapers asking that contributions be sent to Jacob H. Schiff, treasurer of the Committee.

    On Monday afternoon, October 13 (a holiday), the Committee held a full meeting, and, as its by-laws provide, added to its membership for work on this occasion four persons who had particular ability and opportunity to assist in dealing with the needs of those who suffered losses in the disaster. These new members were: Byron H. Uhl, Acting Commissioner of Immigration; Edward O. Thomas, Resident Director of the Uranium S. S. Company; Miss Sadie American, of the National Council of Jewish Women, and Leopold Plaut, President of the United Hebrew Charities. W. Frank Parsons was made Director and Miss Edna J. Wakefield, Assistant Director. The former had active charge of the organization of the work, and the arrangement of co-operation with the other agencies who so generously assisted. Miss Wakefield, with assistants, had entire charge of the case work, under the general direction of an advisory committee consisting of Mrs. John M. Glenn, Mrs. W. K. Draper, Morris D. Waldman, A. B. Koukol, and the Director. This committee met often to discuss individual cases, each one receiving full consideration.
    There were 562 passengers on the VOLTURNO, of which 103 were lost. Of the 459 who were saved, 348 eventually came to the port of New York on fourteen different ships, and 91 others were landed in Canada. Twenty of the survivors who were landed in Europe returned to their former homes.
    The plans for shelter and for other temporary relief were well organized before any of the survivors arrived. The National Council of Jewish Women collected clothing in ample quantity, especially for the women and children. Its trained agents rendered invaluable assistance in locating and establishing the identity of relatives and friends of the girls and women, as was necessary before they could safely be sent to their destinations. The Clara de Hirsch Home for Immigrant Girls opened its doors wide and freely gave the service of experienced workers for the shelter and care of the unmarried girls. The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society received practically all other survivors in its ample and hospitable home. Many other immigrant societies generously offered their accommodations and assistance as did also St. Vincent's Hospital. Several survivors who were ill upon arrival were taken directly from the steamship to this hospital in its own ambulances, and a few others later received attentive treatment there. Four or five of the survivors were met by relatives who took them at once to their homes.
    Twelve ships rescued the survivors, of whom many were first landed in different European ports. Many families were thus separated and widely scattered. The difficulty of securing an accurate list of the passengers, and the greater difficulty of learning who had been lost, became almost at once serious obstacles to plans for permanent relief. The names of the survivors who were taken to Europe were not transmitted to this Committee accurately because of the unusual spelling. Many of them indeed seemed not to abide by any orthodox orthography. The reuniting of families was, for these and many other reasons, unusually complicated.
    The wisdom of sheltering the survivors, so far as practicable, in a single place was demonstrated by the greater speed and efficiency with which necessary personal information was obtained, and by the immediate reunion of relatives upon arrival at the first place of shelter in this country. A considerable number of single men were cared for, after their first day on shore, by homes maintained for the care of immigrants of their respective races. Clothing, medical attention and advice, assistance in securing employment, and temporary help of many other kinds were provided in each of these homes. The survivors were enabled to communicate with their relatives in this country and abroad. They were at once put in touch with those who understood their language and customs and were thus relieved so far as possible from anxiety and uncertainty. Each one was accompanied to his train, given food for his journey, and advised how to find friends or relatives upon arrival at his destination. Messages were sent in advance and matters of transportation so carefully managed that no one of these bewildered people had any difficulty en route. Great credit is due to the co-operating agencies for this invaluable service, and particularly to the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society which willingly and efficiently cared for these temporary needs of the great majority of the survivors.
    The relief of the surviving seamen was provided by the Uranium S. S. Company. Those who came to New York were sheltered at the Seamen's Church Institute. The work of the Red Cross Emergency Relief Committee was confined to aiding the surviving passengers.
    The first of the rescue ships to arrive was the GROSSER KURFUERST. It brought the largest number of survivors arriving on a single ship - all of its eighty-three passengers taken from the VOLTURNO were men. The KROONLAND came three days later with seventy-four of the rescued passengers, including many women and children. These ships, and all the others as they arrived, were met at the dock by representatives of this Committee and co-operating agencies. The inspection by the immigration officials was made on shipboard, and the survivors were taken in automobiles directly to the places of shelter. Many of them were obliged to remain in New York for weeks before missing relatives could be found and an appropriate adjustment of their family affairs could be made.

II

    The disaster that befell the VOLTURNO did not seize upon the imagination of the public as did the wreck of the TITANIC. The contributions to the Committee's fund were insufficient to aid all of the survivors who required assistance. The treasurer of the Committee received directly from public subscription $6,521.64. To complete the work of relief an appropriation of $5,000 was made from the contingent fund held by the American Red Cross in Washington. Of this total, $9,757.80 was expended for the relief of need. The cost of services was $856.39. After the expense of the publication and distribution of this report has been met the balance will be returned to the treasurer of the American Red Cross.
    Of the 439 survivors who reached America, full records of each are in the possession of this Committee. There were 53 family groups, 36 single women, and 237 men. A few of the latter had left families in Europe, though the great majority were unmarried. Not a single full orphan, nor a widow, arrived among the survivors. One man, seriously injured by exposure and overexertion, died of heart disease soon after arrival, leaving a widow and two small children. To this family $2,000 was given from the relief fund entrusted to this Committee; to 43 other family groups gifts amounting to $4,129.25 were made. To 34 of the single women $820 was distributed and to 60 of the men traveling alone $1,508.55. The cost of shelter, clothing and other temporary relief was $1,300, making the total relief expenditures $9,757.80.
    The principal loss of property was of clothing and bedding. Many saved what money they had. The relief appropriations were carefully determined in each case to meet the existing needs. They are not necessarily in proportion to the losses sustained. A large part of this money has been given for careful supervision into the hands of other relief agencies in various cities, according to the terms stated by this Committee, thereby assuring to the Red Cross and to the donors to the fund the best possible disposition of the contributions.
    Some of the survivors who had landed first at Rotterdam and then sent to New York had already received from $15 to $35 each from a relief fund raised by the citizens of Rotterdam and administered by the Montefiore Home of that city.
    Most of the passengers on the VOLTURNO had bought tickets through to their destinations. These called for second class transportation. The Uranium Steamship Line supplied survivors with first class tickets. All of the telegrams sent by the Committee immediately following the disaster were franked by the Western Union Telegraph Company.
    Every passenger who was landed in America from the VOLTURNO, whether he passed through New York or not, was visited after he had arrived in his future home by persons acting for this Committee. In most cases this was done by charity organization societies which contributed their services. So many of the survivors, however, went to the western part of Pennsylvania that a special representative was employed by the Committee to visit those who had settled in that district. The Committee assured itself that each person was suitably housed, was in good health, had means enough for his support, and in the case of bread winners, was at work. The last survivor to arrive in America, an eighteen months old baby, was delivered in health and safety to its parents in Minneapolis by a Red Cross nurse, employed by this Committee, on the tenth of January, 1914.
    It was decided by this Committee that it would not be possible to extend relief to the families in Europe of those who had been lost, although it was fully realized that suffering might come to those people, because of their failure to receive income which had been expected from the member of the family coming to America to seek his fortune.

III

    The work of reuniting children and parents who had been separated in the disaster and of forwarding them to their destinations was filled with pathos and dramatic interest. Members of the same family in many instances were picked up by different boats, each ignorant that the others had been saved. The agents of the Committee were frequently the bearer of news that the lost had been found.
    Perhaps the most affecting reunion was that of Mr. and Mrs. Romaine Vorsack.
Names used in this and subsequent stories are of course fictitious. This case is No. 216. They had started to the United States in their old age. They were saved from the VOLTURNO by different boats. The husband arrived in New York first. His wife was landed at Philadelphia. Each believed the other dead. They had no friends in this country and no relatives in the old country. They were heart-broken. It was late in the evening when Mrs. Vorsack arrived in New York from Philadelphia. She was taken immediately to the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society where her husband was staying. He was told to come downstairs, that a visitor had come to see him on a matter of urgent business. When he was brought face to face with his wife he could hardly believe that it was she. The old man and woman were so overjoyed that they could not think of sleep that night and sat up until morning talking over their experiences. Mr. Vorsack had work in Nova Scotia. They were provided with transportation, clothing, and a small sum for the purchase of household effects.
    This identifying and reuniting of separated families was the most urgent part of the early work connected with the relief of the survivors. It demanded every resource at the command of the Committee, for frequently only after the shrewdest deductions from few facts, and after much correspondence and telegraphing was it possible to bring lost ones together. The manner in which some of the missing children were identified and restored to their parents was most interesting.
    A mother with three children, a boy of six and two girls, one four and the other two years of age, had taken passage on the VOLTURNO to join her husband in Cleveland.
This case is No. 57. The four-year-old girl, Geneviva, was picked up by the KROONLAND and brought to New York. For a long time she refused to say a single word. She would have nothing to do with the other children who had been rescued. There was nothing upon her clothing or about her that offered any clue to the identity of her parents. She was taken to the Nurses' Settlement, where she fell ill with an attack of measles.
    After every expedient had been tried to obtain information from the little girl, and three weeks had passed, a Polish maid employed at the Settlement won her confidence. The child said that her father lived in America, that she had a sister, and that her father's first name was Jacob.
    The records of the steamship company were searched for a man with that name who had inquired concerning his wife and three children. Such a man was found. Meanwhile the mother with the baby girl and the boy had arrived on another ship and had been detained at Ellis Island because the baby had the measles. The mother was immediately notified that Geneviva was saved but would not believe the message until Commissioner Uhl showed her the little girl's picture. Both children recovered quickly, and the reunited family were sent to their home in Cleveland.
    Two other babies, separated from their parents and rescued by the S. S. KROONLAND, were also taken in charge by Mrs. Florence Kelly, who was a passenger on that ship. These children were taken by Mrs. Kelly to her home in the Nurses' Settlement where in a few days one was claimed by her mother who arrived on the next rescue ship to reach New York.
    The other, a four-year-old boy, was not so easily identified.
This case is No. 87. He was so uncommunicative that the passengers on the KROONLAND called him "William the Silent." For many days he declined to tell his name or anything about himself or his parents. Finally, as his confidence was won, he consented to state that his father's name was Oscar. The steamship company had record of the sale of tickets for a woman and four children to a man in Philadelphia whose first name was Oscar. This man was found and came to New York bringing with him a recent picture of his family sent to him by his wife from Russia. He had not seen his son for three years and was unable to recognize him. The boy, however, was able to name the other persons in the photograph and in this way the identification was made. The wife and her three other children came to New York ten days later, having been taken back to England by the ship which saved them. The mother thought her baby had been lost, for their had been no opportunity to notify her of his safety before the actual reunion.
    By the time the mother and older children reached New York the father's business had suffered from neglect because of his anxiety over the fate of his wife and children. The gift of $150 made by the Committee in this instance went far toward repairing the man's losses and toward re-establishing the family.
    Valentine Rouletski, eighteen months old, was delivered in health and safety to his parents in Minneapolis by a Red Cross nurse on the tenth of January.
This case is No. 104. This youngster was the last of those who survived the wreck of the S. S. VOLTURNO to reach his destination. On the day of the disaster he was rescued by a ship which carried him and his four brothers and sisters back to Liverpool. His parents, rescued by two different ships, were landed in New York and Philadelphia but were speedily reunited. The children did not know whether their parents had been saved or not, and the parents were equally in doubt concerning the fate of the children. Upon arrival in Liverpool the children were all sent to the offices of the Uranium Steamship Company in Rotterdam, whence they had embarked, to await news of their parents. Inquiry by the Red Cross Committee brought to the parents the news of the arrival of the children in Rotterdam. Arrangements were made at once to have the children sent to New York. Valentine, however, became ill with measles. His sickness was prolonged, and in November his four brothers and sisters were forwarded to New York without him, and thence taken by an attendant to the parents in Minneapolis. When in January Valentine was finally placed in his parents' arms he cried bitterly when separated from the nurse who had cared for him on the last stage of his long journey. The care given to this infant during his journeys by land and sea is indicative of the sympathy and interest with which those in helpless suffering were treated by the agents of the steamship company and by all others with whom the Red Cross Committee has been associated in this rescue work.
    As previously stated, the Committee's work in this disaster has been mainly with single men and women and families unbroken by the loss of the natural breadwinner. There was only one family
This case is No. 303. among the survivors which suffered the death of a husband. He died after reaching New York from illness induced by exposure and excitement at the time of the disaster. This man was 35 years old. With his wife, a woman of 37 years, a daughter of six and a son of four, he had left Russia to make his home in the United States. A brother had purchased the tickets for the entire family.
    The family brought with them their household goods, bedding, and clothing to the amount of about $300. This and what money they had with them was lost. They were separated at the time of rescue, the little girl reaching New York first. No news was received about the parents for some time, but the child firmly believed they had been saved. She was temporarily cared for and provided with clothing. Later the father arrived. He was evidently seriously ill and was sent at once to a hospital. It was found that he was suffering from heart disease and kidney trouble, both of which were greatly aggravated by the exposure and the excitement to which he had been subjected. Had he arrived without injury he would have been able, it is believed, to have provided for his family.
    Several weeks later the mother and her four-year-old son reached New York. The family was reunited. The mother was pregnant and about two weeks after her arrival entered a maternity hospital and gave birth to a girl. The husband became steadily worse and died about a month after he had arrived in this country. The brother who had purchased the steamship tickets has a considerable family of his own; he is a tinsmith owning a small shop. Though willing to do all in his power, he could not contribute financially toward the widow's support. Other relatives in this country had families in Europe. With the exception of a brother the widow has no relatives either here or in Europe. A fund of $2,000 was set aside for the benefit of this family to be administered as a pension by the United Hebrew Charities. Effort will be made to give the mother such training as will enable her to contribute towards the family's support.

IV

FAMILY GROUPS.

Under this head are included families with children, husbands and wives, wives, mothers with children, children on their way to join parents, one group of a father and two sons and another of a father and son traveling to join the mother who had preceded them to this country.

A. FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN.

     No. 29. (Russian.) A husband, 38 years of age, and a wife, 30 years of age, with their two children of 7 years, and 14 months, were returning to America after a year's visit in Russia. They brought with them three young women relatives all of whom have been able to secure positions at service. The couple were married in this country and both the children were born here. They have returned to their home town where the man was able to secure employment. The man suffered from nervous shock and on his doctor's advice he is temporarily doing only light work. A trunk of clothing and money were lost to a total value of $137. Some clothing was received from another source.                                                                                                  ($100)

     No. 20. (French.) A husband 28 years, his wife of 23, and their two children 6½ and 3 years of age, were on their way to Canada. The man is a miner. All of the household goods were lost. The family were separated at the time of rescue, the wife and daughter reaching New York two weeks before the husband and the little boy landed in Nova Scotia. A cousin, a young man, traveling with the family, arrived on a third steamer. They were all cared for temporarily at the home of the man's brother in Canada and later established themselves in their own home. The man secured employment at once as did his cousin. Contributions from other sources were received in the amount of $40.                                                                               ($100)

     No. 51. (Russian Jew.) A husband of 30 years, a wife of 26 years, and their baby of 8 months, lost clothing, bedding and money to the extent of $800. They remained temporarily with relatives who are in comfortable circumstances. The man had been a drygoods merchant in Russia and entered the same business in this country. Part of the household goods arrived on another steamer. Contributions were received from other sources to the amount of $63.  ($100)

     No. 72. (Austrian.) A family of three were returning to this country after an absence of three years. The man, 32 years of age, had been in America for five years and the woman, 35 years of age, had been in this country for four years prior to 1910. Their child, a boy of seven, is American born. The family returned to Europe in 1910 as a piece of property they owned had to be sold and they did not realize that negotiations could be carried on unless they were present. From the sale of this property they realized $600, which was deposited in a bank in Austria and was therefore not lost. At the time of rescue the family was separated and the husband reached America first. Having learned that his wife and son were safe, he went directly to relatives in a middle west city and secured employment. Mother and child were taken to Liverpool by the steamer which rescued them. Here the little boy became ill and they were unable to leave for several weeks. The wife had $70 with her which were saved. Bedding and baggage had been lost on which a value of $100 was placed.                                                                         ($50)

     No. 237. (German.) A husband of 34, years a wife of 21, and two children of five years and 11 months, were separated at the time of rescue. The man arrived here first. He had saved his money and having been assured that his wife and two children would come on a later steamer, went to his destination in Canada where he found work at $2.50 to $3.00 per day. The mother and children, having been taken to Rotterdam, were later brought to a Canadian port in good health. They had received clothing and financial assistance from a European relief fund. The family are now fairly well established. With them was traveling the wife's brother, a man of 39, with a family dependent upon him in the home country. He was saved and has secured employment as a miner. He is making his home with his sister's  family.                        ($100)

     No. 270. (Russian Jew.) A couple of 54 and 47 years, aged in appearance, and with failing sight, came to their five children in this country. They had sold their farm in Russia and were bringing cash to the amount of $800, clothing, bedding, gifts to their children, and 1,000 pounds of feathers which they had purchased at $1 a pound and which they expected to sell for the same price. They invested in the feathers believing that it was safer to bring their money in this form than in cash. With them was their youngest child, a bright girl of fourteen years and a boy of sixteen, a young cousin who left his home against his parents' wishes, his passage having been paid by the old couple. Both the young people were lost. The three sons of the couple are well established here in business. The unmarried daughter has a good position; the married daughter is not so well off and has a large family of her own. It is planned that the couple, who will probably never recover from the shock of the loss of the daughter and their cousin, will make their home with the eldest son who is the most prosperous of the group and each of the others will contribute something towards the parents' support.                                              ($100)

     No. 156. (French.) A 25-year-old husband, a wife of 23 years, and their ten months old baby, planned to open a small store in Nova Scotia. They lost their bedding and clothing, and some of their money. The couple, however, gave up their project and returned to France after a short visit with friends, money for their tickets having been raised among their acquaintances in the town where they were staying. Financial relief to an unknown amount was received from a European relief fund.

B. HUSBAND AND WIFE.

     No. 18. (Russian Jew.) A couple of 25 years, and 24 years, had two married brothers in this country who were earning good wages and had no children. The brothers gave the young couple a temporary home and promised to help the man find work as a locksmith. Part of the baggage came on another steamer. That on the VOLTURNO was lost as well as their money. Through other sources they received contributions in clothing and money.                                   ($50)

     No. 251. (Russian Jew.) A man of 24 years and his wife of 20 who had been married only five months were separated at the time of rescue, the wife arriving here first. Having learned of her husband's safety she preceded him to their destination. Through the efforts of a philanthropic organization the man has been able to secure employment. The couple lost money to the amount of $50 and their clothing. They are both well and able-bodied and the woman will secure employment if this becomes necessary. Clothing was given from another source.               ($25)

C. MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN.

     No. 278. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 45 years and her four children ranging in age from 16 to 8 years came to join the husband and father who preceded them to this country by three years. There were three older children already here, a son of 18 a factory employee, a daughter of 20 a factory operator, and a married son of 27 who has a baby of his own and is employed as a factory operator. The man was a rag assorter earning small wages. At the time of rescue the family was separated and three of the children reached New York before the mother and the eldest girl. The father met the children. In his anxiety regarding the fate of his wife and daughter he could not continue steadily at his work and he earned practically nothing. Bedding and clothing were lost and the mother's nerves completely unstrung, for she had not known about the safety of her younger children until she reached New York City. The father had purchased the steamship tickets on the instalment plan and was still in debt. Clothing was given from another source and $53 from a European relief fund. A fund was set aside for the family's rehabilitation, to be administered through a relief society of their own nationality.         ($400)

     No. 86. (Dutch.) A mother of 24 years with her four children came to join her husband who had been in this country eight months. With her was her mother who has two sons living in the same western town. The eldest child was thought to have been injured at the time of rescue and was placed in a hospital, the family accompanying him. It was found that there was no injury but the child immediately developed a contagious disease and was transferred to a hospital for contagious diseases where he remained for several weeks. The next child, a three-year-old boy, was separated from the family at the time of rescue and taken on another steamer voyaging east. The mother did not care to go west until she had her family with her and so was provided for in a temporary home while awaiting the recovery of one child and the arrival of the other. Her husband is a miner earning $2.30 a day. He secured and furnished a log cabin for his family. His mother-in-law will live with them. The child who arrived from Europe had received a contribution of $20 from a European relief fund and had an abundant supply of clothing. The family's clothing, household goods and money were lost to the amount of about $300; $250 was divided between the wife and her mother, their board was paid during their stay in New York, and clothing was purchased by this Committee.                                                                              ($336.44)

     No. 203. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 35 years with her five children, ranging from 13 to 4 years came to join her husband who had been in this country four years. With the mother was a young girl, sister of the man. They lost about $150 in money and bedding, clothing and household goods. With the money the wife was bringing, the husband had thought to establish himself in business. He had been earning about $11 a week as a teamster and peddler. Through anxiety because of the disaster the man had been working only irregularly and his income had been small. In order to establish the man in business and the family in a home, a fund was set aside to be administered by the charity organization society of their city. The family received clothing and $60 from a European relief fund.                                                           ($200)

     No. 111. (German.) A mother of 33 years with her five children, the eldest of whom was eleven, came to join her husband, a tailor, who had been in a western city for over a year. She was traveling with relatives destined for the same city. At the time of rescue the family was separated, the mother and eldest two children arriving first. They went on to their destination. The three other children, the youngest of whom was a baby of two years, arrived some three weeks later. The baby had been ill but was quite recovered when taken from the steamer. The children had received a bountiful supply of clothing, and financial contributions from a European source amounting to $60. They were taken to their parents by a trained nurse employed by the Committee. Clothing, bedding and household goods were burned with the steamer, and though the husband had rented rooms and purchased a little furniture, the family was sadly handicapped by the loss of its goods. The man was not in a financial position to purchase all they needed. $150 was administered through a charity organization society for the purchase of suitable furniture for the home and what clothing might be required.                          ($177.43)

     No. 309. (Russian.) A mother of 30 years with her four children of 9, 7, 5 and 2 years, came to join her husband who had been in America two years. She brought with her a large supply of bedding, linen and clothing. This, together with $100 from the sale of a small piece of property was lost. The children on their arrival were suffering from exposure. The man who was earning $15 a week had rented and partly furnished rooms for his family but required aid in completing the household arrangements and in supplying clothing for his family. Some of this was given from another source.                                                                                                ($150)

     No. 199. (Russian.) A mother of 27 years with her three children of 7, 5 and 1½ years, came to join her husband who had preceded her by some months. They did not come to this port but landed in Halifax not far from their destination. The husband is employed as a miner and had a little home ready for his family. Bedding, clothing and household goods were lost. Aid was necessary to provide clothing and help establish the family in a home.                          ($100)

     No. 7. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 28 years and her two children of 6 and 4 years were separated at the time of rescue. The older boy arrived first and was met by his father. The mother and the other boy followed on a later steamer. The man is a peddler earning about $9 a week. He had expected to start housekeeping at once but because of the losses sustained by his wife at the time of the disaster he was obliged to rent two furnished rooms and there the family expected to live until they could save some money. Bedding and clothing as well as $40 in cash were lost, the total estimate being $150. The cash represented the price received through the sale of a small piece of property. The family were established in a home through a fund set aside by this committee to be administered by a society of their own nationality. Clothing was given from another source.                                                                    ($100)

     No. 84. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 35 years with her two children of 10 and 9 years reached this port in good health and went to live temporarily with the woman's married sister. The husband, a cigarette maker earning $9.50 a week, had been boarding with this relative. Clothing, bedding and household goods were lost to the value of $150. Clothing was given from another source and $24 was received from a European relief fund.                                 ($100)

     No. 239. (Hungarian.) A wife of 34 years and her three children, 7 years, 5 years, 8 months, came to join her husband in Canada. The man is employed as a chef earning $30 a month. He had rented a small home for his family and the wife was bringing with her household linen and bedding as well as clothing and some money. Twenty-seven dollars were received from a European relief fund. They have been assisted to purchase bedding and clothing and to establish themselves comfortably in their home by a charity organization in their city.                    ($100)

     No. 312. (Austrian.) A mother of 42 years came with her three children of 10, 7 and 4 years, to join her husband who, with his seventeen year old son had been in this country four years. An 11 year old child remains in Austria with relatives. This child has some eye trouble and the parents knew that he would not be admitted. The wife and children left New York almost at once with the husband and reached their home town quite destitute. They had lost household goods, bedding and clothing on which they placed a minimum value of $100. A fellow-countryman gave them a temporary home and friends took up a collection to rent a cottage. The husband purchased some necessary furniture. Assistance was given that the family might secure clothing and household furnishings.                                                                                        ($100)

     No. 322. (Austrian.) A wife of 25 years and her two children of 2½ years, and 10 months, were separated at the time of rescue. The mother went to join her husband, a coal miner in Canada earning $2 a day. News was later received that the children were saved. The infant received $13 from a European relief fund. Household goods and bedding were lost together with $140. Clothing was furnished the woman.                                                                ($100)

     No. 214. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 33 years came with her three children, a girl of 16, a girl of 9 and a boy of 7 years, to join her husband who had been in this country 6 years. With them traveled the wife's 18-year-old brother. The husband was a cigarette maker keenly desirous of having his own little business rather than doing factory work. He had a little money saved toward establishing a small home and the wife planned to take lodgers for a time in order to supplement the family income. Clothing and bedding were lost. With the assistance given by this Committee a good flat was rented and furnished; a sewing machine was purchased by weekly payments and the man was able to buy enough material to begin his cigarette making as an independent manufacturer. This he carries on in a room quite separated from the rest of the household. He has already secured enough customers to make a better living than at his old form of work. The younger children have been placed in school and the eldest girl is attending English classes. Later she will receive vocational training in a class for young girls of her own nationality. For the nephew work was secured by his uncle. Clothing was given through another source.          ($100)

     No. 151. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 38 years with her seven children ranging from 17 to 8 years, came to join her husband who has a shoe repair shop in a western city. Three of the children were lost. The boy of 17 is a tailor and the father was able to secure work for him. The other children were sent to school.  Bedding, clothing and silverware were lost to the value of $150. Thirty dollars had been received from a European relief fund.                                  ($75)

     No. 34. (Lithuanian.) A mother of 27 years came with her child of 3½ to join her husband in the middle west, a laborer earning $2 a day. Mother and child were separated at the time of rescue and the former reached New York several weeks before the little girl. She went directly to her husband on receipt of the promise that her child would be safely delivered to her. The little girl was sent to her mother in the care of a trained nurse employed by the Committee to take several other children to western cities. The child had received a supply of clothing and $20 from European relief fund.                                                                                          ($59.15)

     No. 55. (German.) A young mother of 19 years with her year-old infant came to join her husband, a miner in Canada. The baby fell ill on the voyage and died shortly after arriving in Canada. Household goods, bedding and clothing estimated at $275 were lost.                  ($50)

     No. 280. (Belgian.) At the time of the disaster when it seemed that no one would be saved, a fellow-country man fastened the baby of a 24-year-old mother to his shoulders, and jumped overboard in an effort to save her life. A wave hurled him back against the side of the steamer with such force that the little girl was killed. The mother and her infant of ten months were saved and were sent to join the husband and father, a miner, in Canada. Clothing, household goods and cash were lost. Clothing and a small amount of money were received from other sources.    ($50)

     No. 307. (Polish.) A wife of 26 years and her three children of 1, 3, 6 years were separated during the disaster and the three-year-old girl reached New York first. She was unable to give any information about herself and was placed temporarily at the Nurses' Settlement where her mother who arrived on the next steamer found her. It was later learned that the two boys were saved and would come on another steamer. The mother and little girl, therefore, joined the father in Canada. Clothing and bedding and money were lost by the family to the amount of $75. The two boys reached Canada safely, having received clothing and $25.43 from a European relief fund. Clothing was given to the mother and daughter.                                                  ($50)

     No. 196. (Slavonian.) A mother of 24 years and her eight months old son came to join her husband who is regularly employed in an iron foundry. Bedding, clothing and $15 were lost. The baby became ill on the voyage and during its recovery at a hospital the mother was given temporary shelter.                                                                                                     ($25)

     No. 128. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 46 years and her youngest two children, 15 and 9 years, were all saved. The mother has a husband and five adult children here, two of whom are married. The others, two men and a young girl, have good positions. The mother's baggage had been forwarded on another steamer and on the VOLTURNO she had only about $30 worth of clothing. Clothing was given from another source and $70 were received from a European relief fund. No further relief was required.

     No. 260. (Austrian.) A mother of 36 years and her three children of 3, 1½ years and 2 months were rescued and were discharged at a Canadian port. They immediately joined the husband who had a home prepared for them. Baggage was lost to the value of $125                             ($25)

Two mothers with children were on their way to join children in this country.

     No. 313. (Russian Jew.) A mother of 52 years and her 17-year-old daughter came to join four sons who have been in America for some years. They lost clothing and money which they valued at $200. The oldest son has a comfortable home where his mother and sister will remain. The young girl plans to learn a trade. Clothing was given from another source and $50.86 from a European relief fund.                                                                                                  ($50)

     No. 325. (Russian.) A widow of 48 years with her 18-year-old daughter came to join her three other children who paid for her transportation. Her baggage had been forwarded on another steamer and only $20 worth pf clothing was lost with the VOLTURNO. Clothing was given through another source and $43 through a European relief fund.

In two cases widows with children had come to the United States to make their homes with relatives.

     No. 206. (Austrian.) A widow of 24 years came with her two little children of 3 years, and 18 months to join the household of her elder married brother, a prosperous farmer in North Canada. Clothing and bedding with what money she had were lost. The children were detained several weeks because of illness.                                                                                            ($75)

     No. 79. (Russian.) A widow of 20 years with her year-old infant came to join her married sister in Canada. She lost clothing and bedding.                                                           ($25)

D. WIVES.

     No. 266. (Russian Jew.) A wife of 20 years came with her mother-in-law, a woman of forty-five, to join her husband, a sober, industrious workman, regularly employed at $12 per week, who had been obliged to borrow a sum of money from a relative toward his wife's and mother's transportation. When the debt is paid the young couple plan to start housekeeping. The wife was bringing with her bedding and clothing valued at $75. Twenty dollars in money were lost. Both women received clothing from another source.                                                        ($75)

E. CHILDREN.

     No. 70. (Russian Jew.) A boy of 18 years and his sister of 16 came to join their father and two sisters in this country. The young girl, owing to exposure and nervous shock, was ill for several weeks. Baggage and money were lost by the young people. Clothing was received from another source.                                                                                                      ($50)

     No. 158. (Russian Jew.) A girl of 16 years and her brother barely fifteen on their way to join father and brother lost all their clothing; they had no money with them. The girl was too nervous to work for six weeks after her arrival. Clothing was received from another source.          ($50)

     No. 65. (Russian Jew.) A girl of 18 years and her 16-year-old brother expected to join their father who is employed as a hospital attendant. They were separated at the time of rescue and their clothing and bedding and money were lost. After a month's rest the boy secured work with a druggist and the girl entered a dressmaking class. They are boarding with an aunt who has a comfortable home. Clothing was given from another source.                                            ($50)

     No. 248. (Russian Jew.) A boy of 16 years and his little sister of 11 years, came to this country to join their parents and brothers and sisters. The children were without money but lost all their clothing. At the time of rescue they absolutely refused to be parted and were lowered together from the burning steamer to the rescuing lifeboat. Arriving here, they clung to each other until the father reached the temporary shelter and claimed them. The man is a presser earning small and irregular wages and the wife's health is poor. The interest of a society of their own nationality was secured with a view to improving the man's wage-earning capacity and securing medical attention for the wife. Clothing was given the children through another source and the father was reimbursed in full by this Committee for the loss of their baggage.        ($25)

     No. 274. (Austrian Poles.) A girl of 8 years and her young brother of 6 years had been living with their grandparents since the migration of their own parents to this country four years ago. The parents saved money enough to send for their children who came under the guardianship of an uncle. The children when rescued were separated from the uncle and taken to Europe. Later they returned to New York. They received clothing and $40 from a European relief fund. The uncle was saved by another steamer. Anxiety over the fate of the children prevented him from going to work at once. The Committee therefore gave him $25 to remit to his family which is still in Europe and looks to him for support. Children - no relief, uncle                                    ($25)

     No. 32. (Hungarian.) A child of 5 years came to this country under the guardianship of a neighbor. She was to be brought to her mother, a widow who had recently married again. The child fell ill on the voyage and remained in the Ellis Island Hospital for several weeks. Upon the little girl's recovery the step-father came to New York and she was discharged to him. The child lost her clothing only and no relief was given.

F. FATHERS AND SONS.

     No. 304. (Polish.) A man of 38 years and his son of 8 years came to join the wife and mother who had been in this country three years. Father and son were separated during the disaster, the father arriving here first. The wife arranged to have her husband learn a trade. The boy arrived on a later steamer. He had received money and clothing from a European relief fund. The family have not suffered from the disaster in any way and no relief by the Committee was necessary.

     No. 183. (Russian Jew.) Two brothers of 19 and 15 years and their father were separated at the time of rescue. The boys each received $27 from a European relief fund, and went to the home of their uncle in Canada. In December the father joined his sons. No relief was given.

NON-FAMILY GROUPS.

A - SINGLE WOMEN.

     No. 302. (Russian Jew.) Two sisters of 18 and 16 years, whose mother is dead, came to join their married brother who sent them the steamship tickets. He is a presser earning $10 a week and has a comfortable home where the girls will live until they are able to follow their trade as dressmakers. They both suffered from burns and their hands were sore from sliding down the ropes when rescued from the burning steamer. The brother, though willing, was unable to meet the entire expense of their care. The girls lost clothing, bedding and money amounting altogether to $50. Clothing was provided to them and a fund was administered for them by a charity organization society.                                                                                  ($100)

     No. 139. (Russian Jew.) Sisters of 22 and 20 years came to join married sisters who preceded them to this city country. Both the the girls were well and expected to secure factory work and board with one of the married sisters. They lost baggage on which they placed a value of $250. The Committee gave $25 to each of the girls.                                       ($50)

     No. 19. (Russian Jew.) Sisters of 20 and 17 years, dressmakers, came to live with a married relative in this city. Clothing and money was lost to the value of $55. Twenty-five dollars were given to each girl.                                                                                        ($50)

     No. 27. (Russian Jew.) A girl of 20 years came from her mother's home to be married. She was married at the temporary home for girls to which she was taken upon reaching this city. The young husband has a good trade and is well able to support her in a comfortable home. The girl lost clothing and bedding on which she placed a value of $60. ($25)

     No. 90. (Galician.) A girl of 18 years left her parents' home and came to her married sister's in Canada. She planned to live at service. The girl suffered the loss of clothing and money. ($25)

     No. 113. (Russian Jew.) A girl of 18 years was sent by her parents to her brother and her married sister in Canada. She is a tailoress by trade and expected to be able to support herself. Clothing was lost and what little money the girl had with her.                                 ($25)

     No. 198. (Pole.) A woman of 48 years came from the home of a daughter in Austria to join her son in Chicago, whose address she had lost. She was landed at another port and went to her destination with several of her countrymen. Inquiry was made of the men but none seemed to remember her address.

More text surely will be added to this page in due course.

Webmaster's Comments

Green numbers below indicate how many Volturno survivors are specifically identified - an amazing 169 so far, to and including item 54, I think. Just to resolve my curiosity! And to help visitors speedily find a name, I have marked all true family names in red.

1)  (Case No. 216. (German.)) The case of Mr. and Mrs. Romaine Vorsack, above, is heart-rending. Now that name is, as advised above, a fictitious name, presumably designed to protect their privacy at the time, while reporting diligently to the public, of course, to the greatest degree possible, as the Committee thought was appropriate.

Now the Webmaster is not and does not claim to be a historian. Nor a typist incidentally. However, every word of this site has been 'two-finger' typed and as a result, he has an unusual degree of knowledge of what happened all those years ago. So the true identity of Mr. and Mrs. Romaine Vorsack can now be told. Perhaps 91 years later, that might just be permitted!

The husband arrived on the Grosser Kurfürst and is clearly the gentleman recorded on line 1 of manifest page, 448 listed as I would read the handwriting, as Valentin Bosantz, a carpenter from Austria, who literally reached North America without a penny in his pocket. The wife arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Seydlitz and is recorded on manifest page 423, on line 9 as Maria Posauts, as I would read the handwriting.

Though I can identify them, I still do not know their correct names however!

The differing names are no longer a surprise to the webmaster, nor I think to anyone else who has attempted to track individuals through the Ellis Island records. Now if there is a puzzle to the webmaster, it is with their ages. He was 49 and she was 44. Certainly not what we would today call 'old age'. Indeed I am surprised it was then considered to be 'old age'. Perhaps a sobering commentary on how life expectancies have changed in the last 90 or so years? (2)

2) (Case No. 86. (Dutch.)) This is clearly the 'DeGroot/Groeneveld' family of Melissa Groeneveld of White Lake, near Pontiac, Michigan, a friend of this site indeed and one who has provided the webmaster with important family archive material. It seems unnecessary to duplicate too much data within this site, so I invite you to read Melissa's family circumstances that are set out on page 77 hereof. (6)

3) (Case No. 57 (Russian.) We can clearly identify this to be the family of Filip Brabik, of Cleveland. He is named on the Ellis Island manifest by which the rest of his family arrived in the U.S., landed by the Carmania, on October 18, 1913.  His wife is manifested as being Jadwiga Brabik, 30 years old, from Russia, and the children as Roman (9 years old) and Margana (2 years old) - those names may be a little imperfect since I am trying to interpret the handwritten names that you can yourselves read at the link below. The wife and the 2 year old were indeed hospitalized, but that seems not to have been so for the boy. They were manifested on pages 393 & 392 at Ellis Island. I have tentatively concluded that they were likely rescued by the Devonian, but that fact is not yet confirmed. There is one minor inconsistency. The Red Cross report states the son to be 6 years old while the manifest states 9. The Red Cross report, only the words as above, is surely the most accurate data in that regard. (4)

Andy Baker has tracked down the grave location of Raymond S. Drabik, the nine year old boy who is named Roman in the above text. Raymond was born at Swietokrzyskie, Poland, on Jan. 26, 1903. He died on May 27, 1979 at Lakewood, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, U.S.A. Raymond is buried at the Holy Cross Cemetery at Brook Park, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. As you can read here. His father Filip Brabik became known as Philip Brabik.

4) (Case No. 87. (Russian Jew.)) Earlier I could not tell you the correct given name for 'William the Silent' who arrived in New York, unaccompanied, on the Kroonland. But it seemed quite clear that the family name was Grossman, from Philadelphia. The wife and the rest of the family arrived later via the Carmania - on October 18, 1913. That family group consisted of Rachel Grossman, 28 years old perhaps from Bagapol, Russia, accompanied by her children Chane (10 years old), Deveira (5 years old), and Feige (5 year old), all girls, it would appear. Those names and spellings may well be inaccurate since I have tried to transcribe the handwriting that I read on Ellis Island manifest pages 397 & 396 (lines 3 through 6). Only already knowing that the father's name was Oscar can you perhaps get 'Oscar' as his first name out of the manifest page upon which relatives and destination are recorded. In the absence of this Red Cross data, I surely expected 'William the Silent' to be Vivide Ludvich, but that is clearly not so and that puzzle is next resolved. (5)

BUT ... the identity of 'William the Silent' is now confirmed. A most welcome guestbook message, received in Mar. 2011, reads as follows:

'I believe (actually am pretty positive) that my grandfather (my father's father) is the person described as "William the Silent" in your writing about the Volturno fire. His name was Frank Grossman (he passed away in 2004), and had three sisters - Annie, Dora and Fay. His mother's name, I believe, was Brucha, and his father, my great grandfather, was named Uscher (which was said as Oscar in the writing). The family ended up staying in Philadelphia, and Frank (William the Silent) had two children - my father Leonard, who is now a physician, and my Aunt Elaine, who is a teacher. He was a beloved grandfather and father, and, appropriate to his unknown nickname, was never one to waste words. So, thank you so very much for sharing your research and knowledge - it really meant a lot to my family to have clarity on what happened! Karly Grossmann.'

5) (Case No. 307. (Polish.)) And also here. In the four cases above, there are extensive descriptive words in the Red Cross report, words that provide a wealth of family and other data. How can it ever be possible to identify the one unaccompanied and unidentified child referred to in the scant words above (first link). The puzzle could not have been resolved without a name added onto manifest page 489 - the name of 'Vivide Ludvich', if I read it correctly. Those words must in fact relate to the 3 year old girl on line 8, even though the reference appears to be to a boy of 3 on line 10. To that we add some text from the New York Times, I believe from the October 17, 1913 issue, which reads as follows:

The officials of this society, which opened its doors to the survivors of the wreck irrespective of race or religion, were gratified particularly late last night by the identification of one of the three little children who were mothered by Lady Bullock, wife of Gen. Sir Frederick Bullock, Governor of Bermuda, after they were brought aboard the Kroonland, which arrived here on Thursday night.
The little waif who was identified was Ludwige Wijek, and she was found by her mother, Mrs. Victoria Wijek, who was taken to Philadelphia after the wreck by the Seydlitz. The child was being cared for at University Settlement, 265 Henry Street, to which she was taken from the Kroonland by Miss Florence Kelly, who is associated with that institution, and was a passenger on the Kroonland. The other two children who were separated from their parents, one a girl about four years old, with dark eyes and brown hair, and a Russian boy, some three years old, with drake eyes and brown hair, are still at the settlement, and have not been identified.

The puzzle can now be solved. Victoria Wujik, (as I read the manifest!) the mother, age 26, arrived via the Seydlitz (line 8 of manifest pages 423 & 421). And the second of those pages names a child Ludwige (and two others, Edward & Johann) as rescued by a vessel unknown. All destined for Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada it would seem. Ludwige was the child, at first unidentified, referred to in the Red Cross report. And to tidy matters up, the other two children, Edward 6 and Johan or Johann, 1 or 1/2 years of age, safely arrived in Halifax aboard the Campanello ex Rotterdam, as you can see on manifest page 479. (4)

Having already solved the puzzle, I now find that this family was in fact referenced in the report as Case No. 307. (Polish), so I have added in the words which appeared re that case number - above in the appropriate section.

6) (Case No. 104. (German.)) How extraordinary it is that the data permits the exact identification of specific persons to be made, so very long after the date of the disaster! (Re fictitious name of Rouletski.)

I try to link rather than repeat data within these pages, so may I invite you to link to the data that exists re this family which is named in various ways as being 'Jablonetka', 'Yablonecki' and 'Yallonesky', or maybe something very similar to those names. The detail is quite extensive and can be found on page 71 hereof. (7)

7) (Case No. 303. (Russian Jew.)) This case has proved to be the hardest to identify. But I think that I know the approximate family name with a high degree of certainty. I believe that family name is Weisbrod or perhaps Weisburg, Weisburd or Weissbard. With the data available it is difficult to be exact as to the spelling.

a) In the New York Times of October 14, 1913, a 'Weisbrod, Blume' was indicated to be a survivor aboard the Seydlitz. That vessel arrived in Philadelphia on October 16, 1913 and manifest page 423 lists (line 29) a Weisbrod Blume, a girl of seven years, destined for New York City. The second part of that manifest page, i.e. page 421, states her family to be Helvel, her father, Riffel, her mother and Itzig, her brother of 3, saved by vessels unknown. Forgive me if I have read those names incorrectly.

b) On October 22, 1913, 'Weisburd, Welwal', (you try!) arrived on the Olympic from Southampton, said to be age 35, a tailor, with fare paid by brother. The manifest pages are 428 and 427 on line 22.

c) And on October 27, 1913, arriving aboard La Touraine on manifest pages 401 & 400 arrived (lines 25 and 26) 'Rifke Weissbard' 37 years old, and her son 'Itzig Weissbard', aged three, destination New York City. (4)

Now is is quite possible that the family name was Weisburg. An article in the London Times on October 15, 1913 (thank you Tony Jones) contains this reference re survivors rescued by Minneapolis and landed at Tilbury: 'Some pathetic stories were told by individual survivors. A middle-aged man named Wolf Weisburg had seen all his family separated. His wife, who was ill, was taken off with a child of four, another child aged six was placed in a different boat, and Weisburg himself was separated from them all, and is still unaware whether they escaped with their lives.' And having now re-checked the Ellis Island manifest, the name of Wolf was originally entered and just maybe Weisburg as well. That is a very messy manifest page!

8) (Case No. 20. (French)) This case was quite easy to identify because there were so few passengers aboard the Volturno of French origin.

The family name was 'Binean' or 'Binant' or 'Binaut' or maybe a name close to one of those names. The wife and the 6 or 6½ year old girl arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland. Recorded on manifest pages 464 & 463 as being 'Binant Borsche' 23, and 'Binant Bertch' 6. Similar data was reported in the New York Times survivor listing re the Kroonland. The husband, 'Binean, Paul' 28, and 'Binean Charles' 3, arrived later in Halifax aboard the Campanello, en route to an acquaintance in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, as you can see at manifest page 479. The cousin was 'Marid, Edmond', age 22, a miner, who arrived in New York aboard the Grosser Kurfürst and was manifested on pages 444 & 443 (line 14). The descriptive words say that he was on his way to 'Paul Binaut' in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. Problem solved! (5)

9) (Case No. 237. (German.)) This case is of interest to the webmaster because the detail provided may yet permit the rescue vessel for three Volturno survivors to be better identified. As I try to refine the lists of persons rescued by each vessel as recorded on page 19.

The family name of these survivors would appear to be 'Schubert'. The husband and father, 'Gustav Schubert', arrived in New York on board the Kroonland, destination Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, as you can read on manifest pages 464 & 463 (line 3). The wife and two children, arrived in Quebec aboard the Canada destined to join her husband in Glace Bay - as you can see on manifest page 473. She is recorded there as 'Schubert, Lidia, 21, alias Selinberg'. Her children are recorded as William, a boy of 3, and Elsa, a girl of ½ a year. The data is inconclusive for me re that rescue vessel list. The Canada left from Liverpool. It is, however, quite possible with the vessel timings that the wife and two children arrived in Rotterdam aboard the Czar, and then were transferred over to Liverpool to join a ship going to Canada. Hopefully new data, will be received in the future to resolve that situation. I have not tried yet to identify the wife's unnamed brother, 39 years old. That may be quite difficult to do! But may very well be possible. (4 and one to go)

10) (Case No. 199. (Russian.)) This case is in respect of the 'Nikitczuk' family, who were landed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, by the Rappahannock. The family comprised, per manifest page 480, Marie Nikitczuk, 27 years old, accompanied by her children Petro, a boy of 7, Dimitry a boy of 5, and Katarina, a girl of 1¼ or 1½. All with destination stated to be Sydney, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, to join the husband/father located there. (4)

11) (Case No. 239. (Hungarian.)) Another family destined to Canada. It is the Schneider family, who were landed by the Campanello in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The family comprised, per manifest page 479, Marie Schneider, 34 years old, accompanied by her children Pista, a boy of 7, Odon, a boy of 5, and Bandi, a boy of 8 months. All with destination stated to be Toronto, Ontario, where the husband was said to be a head waiter. (4)

12) (Case No. 111. (German.)) A family in fact destined for Minneapolis. The family name is Jutkowski, or Zuilkowsky, or maybe Yulkowski, or perhaps another name close to one of those names. Yulkowski was the name as written in the New York Times. 'Maria Jutkowski', 33, arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Seydlitz along with Florian, a boy of 11, and Bruno, a boy of 9. The stated destination was Minneapolis and the arrival is recorded on lines 4 through 6 of manifest pages 423 & 421. The other three children were rescued by La Touraine and landed at Le Havre but they returned to the United States aboard the Uranium as per lines 10 through 12 on manifest pages 418 and 417. Specifically Helena Zuilkowsky a girl of 7, along with her sister Genoveta, 6, and brother Franz, 2. And on lines 6 through 9 on those last manifests are four members of the Jallonesky family, also going to Minneapolis. Most likely they are part of the group of relatives referred to in the Red Cross report. That family has already been covered - see a few items up under item 6). (6)

The Webmaster is delighted to have been in communication in 2004 with Rod Julkowski. The 'Maria' (or Mary) referred to above was Rod's grandmother, and Franz, or Frank, just two years old in 1913, was Rod's father. The Julkowski family is still in the Minneapolis area over 90 years later. Rod advises that Julkowski is the American spelling of the family name and that spelling has been essentially consistent going back to the 1700s. Maria died in 1951, I learn, and Frank died in 1990. And Maria's husband's name was Florian or Floyd. He passed away in 1978.

And now, in May 2005, the Webmaster has heard from another branch of the Julkowski family, specifically from Jim Hutchinson, of Tucson, Arizona. There are, as Jim puts it, a ton of Julkowski's in Minneapolis today! But the third generation has often moved elsewhere in the U.S.

Now Jim's mother was Genevieve or Genoveta Julkowski, (or Genovefa Zmlkowsky as it appears on the records), who arrived aboard the Uranium, later married and became a 'Hutchinson', and passed away in 1982. Mary or Maria Julkowski (Marie Jutkowski as it appears on the records)
, who arrived on Seydlitz in 1913 was Jim's grandmother. She travelled to the U.S. in 1913 to join her husband Frank A. (Franz) Julkowski who arrived in Minneapolis prior to the Volturno disaster with 2 of his brothers and sent for his family after establishing himself. Bruno was Bernard Julkowski. Florian was Floyd Julkowski. Helena Julkowski (or Helana Zmlkowsky as it appears on the records) married and became a 'Green'. Franz was Frank B. Julkowski (Franz Zmlkowsky) And last but not least, Rod Julkowski, who provided the data in the second previous paragraph, is Jim's cousin.

That all becomes a wee bit difficult to follow - and maybe more than a bit! For a non Julkowski, at any rate! I trust I will be advised if I have recorded any of the data incorrectly.

13) (Case No. 278. (Russian Jew.)) One might, having read the text above, conclude that there was surely insufficient detail to be able to identify the family concerned. But there are, in fact, enough clues! The family is the 'Tepper' family of New York City. The three youngest children arrived aboard the Seydlitz and are recorded on lines 24 through 26 of manifest pages 423 & 421. The oldest was listed as 'Tepe, Beile', a girl of 14, along with Ellen a girl of 9 and Surke a boy of 8. I know, in fact, that Surke was a girl rather than a boy, indeed until she passed away in September 2006 she surely was the oldest and probably the only living survivor of the Volturno disaster. The second of those manifest pages indicates that the father was Michel Tepe ('here four years') but would seem to state, with one word that confuses me, that the children were met by Abraham Tepe, whose exact then address in the Bronx is listed. The mother and the eldest daughter arrived later. 'Cire Tepper', aged 45 arrived with her daughter Hudel, aged 16, on the Campanello ex Rotterdam, as you can see on lines 2 and 3 of manifest pages 497 & 496. Their destination was 'Michal Tepper', with his exact Brooklyn address stated. I find it quite extraordinary that such specific details are today available to permit the proper identification to be made. (5)

14) (Case No. 203. (Russian Jew.)). This family proves to be the Pachczarsky's. The very large family group arrived in Halifax aboard the Campanello, with Chicago as their destination - an exact destination address in that city being stated for Israel Pachczarsky, 'husband, brother and father'. I think, but am not 100% sure, that they would have been landed in Rotterdam by the Czar. I presume that they went overland from Halifax to Chicago, but that also is still to be proven. Per manifest page 478, this was, I conclude, the main family. 'Brane Pachzarsky', the mother aged 35, together with three boys - 'Chone' aged 11, 'Abram', aged 9 and 'Jankel', aged 7. And also two daughters - 'Bassie', aged 4 and 'Perl', aged 3. The husband's sister would surely be 'Beile Pachczarsky', aged 18. There is a modest inconsistency in the data. The oldest child was 13 per the Red Cross report but was only 11 according to the manifest page. (7)

15) (Case No. 84. (Russian Jew.)) This case is in respect of the 'Grabois' family, who were landed by the Czar in Rotterdam and came on to New York on the Campanello. The family comprised, per manifest pages 410 and 409, Freida Grabois, 35, with her two children - Nissel, a boy of 10, and Creina or Creiva, a girl of 9. All joining Seidel Grabois, the husband and father, at a stated address in Philadelphia. (3)

16) (Case No. 312. (Austrian.)) This case is in respect of the 'Lajonc' family, who were landed by the Kroonland in New York. The family comprised, per manifest pages 469 & 468, on lines 17 through 20, Magdalena Lajonc, listed as aged 42, from Yassel, Austria, with her three children - Jusef, a boy of 10, Mariana, a girl of 7 and Bronislaw, a boy of 4. All joining Tomasz Lajonc, residing, as I read the words, at River Point, Rhode Island. (4)

17) (Case No. 214. (Russian Jew.)) This case is the first case where the arrival details were not spelled out in any detail in the Red Cross report. 'Pia Polick', a lady of 33 years of age was landed at Halifax by the Rappahannock and went on to New York aboard the Florizel. Her manifest, available on pages 493, 492 & 8, includes (manifest 8) a reference to three children landed by the Kroonland. And so it is. Manifest pages 469 & 468 list her three children arriving in New York aboard that vessel - Milka Poliak and Golde Poliak, respectively girls of 13 and 9 years of age and Gune Poliak, a boy of 7. Destination New York - to Gerschon Poliak, the father. All from Karmangaz or Karmanitz, Russia. Manifest 469 also includes an 18 year old man named 'Chaim Kuzwiz', from that very same place in Russia, so that is surely the wife's 18 year old brother. But maybe both of those names are wrong. Read on.

The Kroonland arrived in New York first of course. And here is the human drama that unfolded as reported in the New York Times, of October 17, 1913, when the father met his three children as they exited a taxicab at the Hebrew Sheltering Society home:

When the first taxicab drew up in front of the home three little girls stepped from the cab to the pavement, and as they gazed about at the crowd pressing in on all sides a cheer went up. A woman followed, and then a boy and a second woman. All six stood for a second, not knowing what to do. As an agent of the society started to guide their steps toward the building a commotion was heard in the crowd, and despite the efforts of four policemen to stop him a man broke through and pushing the patrolmen aside knelt by the eldest child and drawing her into his arms, sobbed:
"Where is mamma?"
The police who had followed to drag him back stopped and instead forced the others who crowded near back into line.
The child replied that her mother was safe on another boat.
"Thank God," replied the man.
It was then learned that he was Gershon Pollak, of 543 East 139th Street, and that the three children were his daughters. Milka, 14 years; Goldie, 9 years, and Hannah, 7 years and the boy, Hyman Kushmer, 16 years, their cousin.
After he had become somewhat composed Pollak said he had sent for his wife, three children and cousin to leave their home in Commetzpodski, Russia, to join him here. He had been in this country for the last six years. His wife, it was learned, was picked up by a boat from the Rappahannock.
In the excitement, mother and children had been separated.

It would seem that the New York Times article is in error in the detail. The youngest child was, it would seem a boy and not a girl. That child, named Hannah in the article, was manifested as Gune, a boy. The cousin, if he indeed was the cousin as I think he was, was 16 years old per the New York Times article, but was manifested as being 18 years old. (5)

18) (Case No. 280. (Belgian.)) I am able to provide an amazing amount of detail about this sad case where a 3 year old girl, being carried on the back of another passenger when he jumped into the sea, struck the side of the Volturno 'with such force that the little girl was killed'. The Belgian mother and a baby was saved by the Kroonland, as also, in fact was the Belgian man (living in France) who tried to save that 3 year old. 'Angel Tourneur', aged 24, along with her son Victor, 10 months, arrived in New York, per manifest pages 464 & 463 (lines 7 & 8) with Sydney, Cape Breton, Canada, as their ultimate destination. Those same manifest pages also record, on line 23, Henri Boagusjean (as I read it), a 23 year old miner, also a Belgian but living in France, and also traveling to Sydney.

Any doubt as to the matter, if there is any, is surely resolved by the following text in the New York Times, of October 17, 1913:

Henri Bonquegneau, 24 years old, from the north of France, told the Immigration Inspectors that he was very grieved because he had failed to save the life of a child belonging to one of his countrywomen on board. Mrs. Angele Tourneu was a passenger with her two months' old son Victor and her 3-year-old daughter Angele, on the way to join her husband near Cape Breton, in Canada. At 11 o'clock on Thursday night, when the boat from the Kroonland was alongside, Bonquegneau said that Mrs. Tourneu asked him to take her daughter and she would wait for the next boat.

"After putting on a life jacket," the young Frenchman said, "I tied the little girl to my back in it with a shawl and then jumped over into the water. I think that in coming up she must have struck her head against the hull of the Volturno as it sank in the trough of the sea, because until then the child's arms were tightly clasped about my neck, and then suddenly they let go and hung limply. I could not find the boat from the ship, and swam for twenty-five minutes toward the Kroonland.

"The shawl with the baby of the little girl was such a weight around my neck that I had to let it go. As I got near to the steamer I was picked up by one of the boats and taken on board the Kroonland. I am going to try and find where Mrs. Tourneu is, so that I can let her know what happened to her little daughter."

A sad story indeed. (3)

19) (Case No. 128. (Russian Jew.)) This case was easy to find. The mother is 'Chaje, Klotz', aged 46, who arrived in New York aboard the Campanello having been rescued by the Czar. She traveled with Sure, Klotz, a daughter aged 15 and Sanje, Klotz, a son aged 9. Manifest pages are 410 & 409 - lines 6 through 8. They were en route to Jessel Klotz whose address was in Brooklyn. (3)

20) (Case No. 151. (Russian Jew.)) It seems to becoming easier and easier to identify the survivors! This case  was quite easy to find. The mother is 'Ruhel Kutkowsky, aged 38, who arrived in Halifax aboard the Campanello with a U.S. destination recorded. She arrived with Abram Kutkowsky, 17, Chajke Kutkowsky, 8, Smul Kutkowsky, 4, and Joine Kutkowsky 3. All boys. Recorded on manifest page 478. They were headed to the father in Minneapolis. He is listed as being 'Mojeke Kutkowsky (changed his name to Morris Goldman)', with a specific address in Minneapolis listed. What I cannot see, of course, is the names of the three children that were tragically lost in the disaster.

BUT... The New York Times of October 24, 1913 listed the names of 102 passengers who lost their lives and there are three Kutkowski's in the list. With given names of Prive, Daniel and Rive. No other data at all. (5)

Andy Baker has tracked down the grave location of Rachel Goldman, the mother in the above paragraphs known earlier as Ruhel Kutkowsky. She died at about age 54, in 1929. She was buried in the United Hebrew Brotherhood Cemetery at Richfield, Hennepin County, Minnesota, U.S.A. As you can read here. It would seem also that one of the four surviving children aboard Volturno, named above as Joine Kutkowsky, 3 years old in 1913, became later known as Harry Goldman. He died at age 48 in 1958 & is also buried at the United Hebrew Brotherhood Cemetery. As you can read here.

21) (Case No. 206. (Austrian.)) This case stumped me for quite a while. And I think that I have found the first tiny error in the Red Cross Report. I now think that the words ahead of the case, as transcribed in the report above, are incorrect, at least for this particular case. They lead me 'off track' initially. I now believe this family was headed to Canada and not to the United States. It would not surprise me that knowledge of comparatively remote Saskatchewan, Canada, was quite limited at that time and that someone might have thought that 'North Canada', was a place in the U.S. Anyway I believe the mother is 'Hanke, Badowa', aged 25, who arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland with her family consisting of 'Stevan Badowa' a boy of 3, and 'Stasch Badowa' a boy of 1½. All were manifested on pages 464 and 463 - on lines 11 to 13. All with Alvena?, Saskatchewan as their destination, specifically to 'Josifs Harkur', the mother's brother. All were hospitalized as is clearly indicated on the manifest. They also were listed on duplicate manifest pages 389 and 388 but with an incorrect name of Patola. (3)

22) (Case No. 309. (Russian.)). A family group headed to a father in Philadelphia  While the text above makes no mention of the fact, this family group were clearly landed in Europe (most likely by the Devonian at Liverpool, but I am not really sure of that) and traveled back to New York aboard the Carmania. The family grouping can be found on manifest pages 393 and 392, on lines 1 through 5. The mother is 'Natalia Zadorosua', aged 30, and her children, all boys, are Ignatc Zadorosua, 9, Michael Zadorosua, 7, Laurence Zadorosua, 5, and, last but not least, Pawel Zadorosua, aged 2. The father is Peter Zadorosua and they all seem to be from Belogerhi?, Russia. There is however a puzzle. I am surprised that the children would still be suffering from exposure when they arrived in New York on October 26, 1913, two weeks after the rescue, and after having traveled back on Carmania, a quality vessel. But families of this exact composition are unique in the data. So that puzzle remains unaddressed today. (5)

23) (Case No. 313. (Russian.)). There are relatively few Volturno immigrants of the age of this lady i.e. 52 years per the Red Cross Report. But that said, I should state that the manifest page upon which this small party arrived lists her as being 50 years of age only. The lady was 'Beila Zaslawsky', from Odessa, Russia, traveling with 'Ruhel Zaslawsky', aged 17, also, of course from Odessa and clearly Beila's daughter. The manifest pages are 406 and 405. They arrived in New York aboard the Campanello, having, I think, been landed in Rotterdam by the Czar. But that last data is not yet absolutely proven. Their destination was New York City, to 'Welirel Zaslawsky'?, whose address was in Brooklyn. (2)

24) (Case No. 270. (Russian Jew.)). As for the previous item, there are relatively few Volturno immigrants of the age of this couple, which proves to be a husband of age 54, and a wife of age 47 or 48. From what I have seen, I suspect that the age reported in the Red Cross report, i.e. 47, is more likely to be the most accurate. The couple arrived in New York aboard the Carmania. Specifically 'Leib Sapsen' aged 54, described as being a blacksmith, and his wife 'Wichne Sapsen', aged 47, per these manifest pages - 393 and 392 on lines 14 and 15. I think that the couple was most likely landed in Liverpool by the Devonian, but I cannot tell you that data is confirmed. Both from Besengruts?, Russia, and heading to a named son in New York City. I think that Leib may have been lucky to be permitted to immigrate at all. His manifest line indicates 'old scars due to trachoma'. Now what the manifests do not, of course report, is the name of the two young people who were lost in the disaster. The youngest daughter of the couple aged 14 was lost, as also was a cousin aged 16. Perhaps other sources will yet tell us their names. (2)

25) (Case No. 7. (Russian Jew.)). This family did not prove to be easy to find. Due in large part to an age inconsistency in the data. The Red Cross report talks of a mother of age 26, with children of 6 and 4 years, sex not indicated. There would seem to be no Russian mothers of age 26 that are not already accounted for. And the children's ages are inconsistent also. But all is not lost!

I believe this to be the 'Eppl' family from Philadelphia. Abraham, aged 4 per the manifest, would seem to have been the first to have arrived - aboard the Seydlitz. His name, as recorded on line 28 of manifests 423 and 421, was there indicated to be 'Abraham Aeppel', going to his father Philip (family name not stated but the family members on other ships indeed stated) in Philadelphia and said to be from 'Volinc Guboni', in Russia. Abraham's mother and brother would seem to have arrived later aboard the La Touraine, having, I presume, been initially landed at Le Havre, in France. 'Ruchel Eppl' aged 24, arrived with her son 'Erojko Eppl', aged 3, as recorded on lines 9 and 10 of manifest pages 401 and 400. Both from Palome or Palona, Russia, and also headed to Philip Eppl, the husband and father in Philadelphia. (3)

26) (Case No. 266. (Russian Jew.)). Again some inconsistency with the reported ages. But I think that the identification which follows is good.

I believe these two ladies to be named 'Steinberg' both headed to St. Paul, Minnesota. The mother is I believe 'Charna Steinberg', aged 55, who arrived aboard the Seydlitz. Her manifest pages, 423 and 421, on line 27, indicate that her daughter is Liebe, that she is headed to her son in St. Paul, and that she is from Chuman, Russia. The names of her son and daughter-in-law are a bit of a puzzle however, but none-the-less, the record seems to be clear. The daughter would seem to be 'Libi Steinberg', landed by the Kroonland. Her manifest pages (line 1) are 469 and 468. Also destined to St. Paul, Minnesota to husband A. Steinberg. I will not try to figure out where the manifest indicates Libi was from! Please tell me if you can read what it says. The inconsistency is that the Red Cross report states that the mother was 45 years of age, when the manifest states that she was 55 years of age. So be it! (2)

27) (Case No. 29. (Russian.)). This is a 'case' that I did not expect to be able to solve. The husband and wife would seem to have arrived in the U.S. at a prior date, and the two children were, indeed, born in the U.S. So I did not expect any of them to be manifested at all, the parents as probably citizens already and therefore returning nationals, and the children as Americans by birth. But they are all in fact listed!

This whole party is named 'Boshko', from Walensky, Russia - headed to South River, New York. Where exactly is that, I wonder? They arrived as a complete group on board the Carmania probably having been landed at Liverpool by the Devonian. But I do not know that for sure. Find them all on manifest pages 397 and 396, on lines 24 through 30. There you will find 'Iwan Boshko', aged 38 the father, 'Pelajea Boshko', aged 30, the wife, and the children, both boys, Peter, aged 7, and Wassily, aged 11 months. And then the three young women relatives, 'Nestia Boshko', aged 20, 'Awdocia Boshko', also aged 20, and 'Hanka Boshko', aged 21, all also en route to South River. (7)

28) (Case No. 322. (Austrian.)). This is a 'case' that I am not sure I have solved. Certainly not in its entirety. From the Red Cross Report words one would expect the mother, aged 25 and Austrian, to have arrived first. And, while the words do not say so, one would expect the children, once identified, to be shipped to the family in Canada and therefore likely arrive at a Canadian port. Probably the two children were rescued by different vessels, since only the infant received funds in Europe.

Now there would appear to be only one 25 year old Austrian lady in the manifests who has not already been accounted for. Her name is Maria Tucsyzna, from Austria. She arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland, and you can see from her manifest data, on line 2 of manifest pages 464 and 463. She would seem to have come from Ligvoka or maybe Ligoroka, Austria and on her way to her husband at New Watersford, Nova Scotia, Canada. So far so good. The infant, I think, must have been rescued by the Czar and shipped to Halifax aboard the Campanello. He is listed, as I read it, as Waclaw Juczyzna, a name very close phonetically to the mother's name. You can find him on manifest page 479. Described as being just 3 months old, Russian, and en route to his parents at Sydney, Cape Breton, an appropriate address certainly for a father who is a coal miner. So far, however, I cannot track the child of 2½ in any manifest of arrivals in North America. That does not mean that my identification of the other two family members is right or wrong. It merely points out that the data is fragile and I am missing Volturno survivors in my 'master list' on page 19. I suspect that he arrived in Canada on another ship, name unknown at the present time. (2 and 1 to go)

29) (Case No. 196. (Slavonian.)). Again an inconsistency with a reported age. But I think that the identification which follows is good, because there were so very few Slavonian immigrants and absolutely none with the mother aged 24.

I believe this small family unit is named 'Muschka', headed to husband Stefan at Detroit, Michigan. The mother is I believe 'Anna Muschka', aged 28 per the manifest but aged 24 per the Red Cross report. Anna arrived, with her daughter Antonina, aboard the Kroonland. The manifest pages, 460 and 459, on lines 17 and 18, indicate that they are from Chermetz, Hungary. I expected to see on those pages that the daughter was hospitalized at Ellis Island, but that may well have happened after she entered the U.S. They were discharged to the 'H.S.H.' The 'H.S.' surely means 'Hebrew Sheltering'. Perhaps the last 'H' means 'hospital'? (2)

30) (Case No. 51. (Russian Jew.)). An easy family to locate. This is the Deitsherd family, who all arrived in New York aboard the Camponello having probably been rescued by the Czar. Manifest pages are 406 and 405 on lines 18 through 20. Specifically Wolf Deitsherd, age 30, with Maria Deitsherd, his wife, and Chane Deitsherd, aged 8 months. He was listed as a dealer. Destination New York City. (3)

31) (Case No. 72. (Austrian.)). Again a case with an inconsistency with a reported age. But I think that the identification which follows is good. This is a family I was glad to find because it permitted the rescue vessel data on page 19 of this site to be corrected.

I believe this family unit to be named 'Frank' or 'Franc', all headed to Chicago. The husband, 'Alois Franc', would indeed seem to have been the first to arrive - on October 25, 1913. He arrived at Quebec, Canada, aboard the Royal Edward. I am not 100% sure which vessel would have rescued him and landed him in Europe but it most likely was the Narragansett. Manifest page 474 states his age to be 42. He would, I presume, have gone overland from Quebec to Chicago. The rest of the family indeed arrived rather later, on November 24, 1913, via the Carmania into New York. The mother is 'Marie Frank', aged 25, and she was accompanied by 'Anton Frank', a boy of 7. Both listed as being from Chezko, Hungary (but Austria is mentioned above) and also headed to Chicago. The two of them have their very own manifest pages i.e. 481 and 472. (3)

There is a bit of puzzle with this family. Firstly that they were manifested at all, in all of the circumstances. And secondly the fact that the husband would not seem to have gone to New York as the Red Cross report states. But maybe he did. Who knows!

32) (Case No. 156. (French.)). Another easy family to locate. This is the Ludwig family, who all arrived in Halifax aboard the Camponello having probably been rescued by the Czar. Manifest page is 479. Specifically Paul Ludwig, age 25, with Marie Ludwig, his wife, aged 23, and Erhard Ludwig, aged 10 months. Headed to Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. (3)

33) (Case No. 183. (Russian Jew.)). The above cases are primarily family groups rather than individuals. The composition of each family has proved to be quite distinctive, and the data permitted an identification of each case to be made with some assurance. I am getting now towards the end of such groups, and am venturing into individuals or small family units where identification is not so easy. This case interests the webmaster because were the case solved, it might aid the webmaster to correct the rescue vessel data on page 11. That hope has not, yet at least, borne fruit.

Re this particular case, there would seem to me to be only one 15 year old male Volturno survivor manifested and his circumstances seem not to 'fit' this case. There are five 19 year old male Volturno survivors, it would seem, but only one really seems to fit, one 'Eisig Milikowsky', traveling to his uncle, a tailor, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He arrived in Halifax aboard the Campanello after having been probably rescued by the Czar. Per manifest page 479. I think he probably is the 19 year-old referred to in the case, but, I can, so far at least, find no passenger manifested that might be his brother, who also would have been landed in Europe and then probably sent to Canada. Nor can I find the father who arrived in December 1913, at a Canadian port, it would seem. Since I did not know that there even was a vessel that reached Canada in December 1913 with Volturno survivor(s) aboard, that is valuable information, however. Until new data becomes available, I can do no more. (1 with 2 to go)

34) (Case No. 260. (Austrian.)). Another easy family to locate. This is the Staczyzun family, who all arrived in Halifax aboard the Camponello having probably been rescued by the Czar. Manifest page is 479. Specifically Helena Staczyzun, age 36, with Barbara, aged 3, Leo, aged 1½ and Ottokar, aged 2 months. All headed to the husband, a miner, at Sydney, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. (4)

35) (Case No. 304. (Polish.)). This case took me a while to resolve. But I think it IS now resolved. The family name is Wilozuesky, or Wilczinski, or Wilczynsky but being precise is difficult indeed. The father is, I believe Johan Wilozuesky, or that is how he is manifested, a 38 year old Austrian/Pole from Christina, Austria even though the manifest seems to say from Sabarash, Austria. I think the data on that page simply got out of alignment. His brother was Nicola Vielchenok, it would seem, and Johan's name was first written as being Vielchenok and then corrected. Did he change his name? Don't know. An agriculturalist? Whatever that means. He arrived aboard the Olympic - line 17 on very messy manifest pages 428 and 427 having, I think, been rescued by the Minneapolis. His wife is perhaps Marie Vulchenok, of East 6th Street, New York. The son, who indeed would have arrived rather later and was 8 years old is Michal Wilczynsky, going to join his parents Johan and Marie Wilczinski on East 6th Street in New York City. His arrival aboard the Uranium is recorded, on line 3 of manifest pages 418 and 417, having been rescued by La Touraine. I trust you might agree with my conclusion that the two are indeed father and son. But do let me know if you have more data or if you disagree with my conclusion. (2)

36) (Case No. 32. (Hungarian.)). The identification of these two passengers was quite difficult. But I think my identification of the child is quite certain. And the guardian follows on once the child is known.

Firstly there would not seem to have been a 5 year old Hungarian girl rescued and manifested. Nor, that I can see, a 6 year old girl either. But there is a 4 year old girl who does fit the details which were provided in the Red Cross report. Henrietta Budavitch, listed as being Hungarian Slovak, arrived aboard the Carmania and was manifested on line 1 of manifest pages 397 and 396 - having been, as you can read on page 68, rescued by the Devonian. Fare paid by her mother. She was hospitalized as the manifest clearly indicates. En route to her father, perhaps step-father, Pawlco Badvaitich (name difficult to read) of Binghamton, New York. Having made that identification, I am then looking for an adult passenger of a similar ethnic background who did not get rescued by the Devonian, and whose final destination would most likely also be Binghamton, New York. There are very few Hungarians in the first place, and only one that I can find with a destination of Binghamton. And that is Paul Hilek, aged 47, who arrived at Quebec, Canada, aboard the Royal Edward, as per manifest page 476. He was en route to his daughter, Anna Hilek. Now I do not yet know categorically that Paul Hilek was not, in fact, rescued by the Devonian, but surely he could not have been rescued by that vessel, else the data on page 68 would not make sense. I believe he was rescued by the Narragansett. But that is still to be proven. (2)

Since the above was written, new material has been received from William Scimbe, Henrietta's son. And on page 68 you can now see a photograph of Henrietta Budavitch and Paul Hilek, along with Henrietta's grandmother.

37) Case No. 248. (Russian Jew.)). The webmaster claims no great knowledge of the events surrounding the Volturno disaster. The data I have located, with the help of many, is in these pages for all to read. That said, I recognised this particular case situation from words I have read in the New York Times, I believe of October 17, 1913. I have a part only of those words today and hopefully will have more of the text in the future.

This brother and sister are named Shood, the name that was stated in the New York Times, or Shut or Shutt or Shirt perhaps. The two youngsters, surely terrified, were rescued by the Kroonland and are manifested on lines 3 and 4 of manifest pages 469 and 468. The boy of 16 is listed as Sossel (I think) Shut and his sister of 11 is listed as being Chaie Shut. From Lodz, Russia. Going to their father Aron Shutt at a stated address in Philadelphia. Ellis Island read the manifested names as being Sossel and Chaie Shirt.

How wonderful it was that they looked after one another as they did! These are the essentially verbatim words from the New York Times (I have corrected some obvious typing errors):

'Two children who survived the disaster, though traveling alone, were Yosel Shood, 16 years old, and his sister, Chaya, 11 years. They told a story of the panic following the first cry of fire, the simple telling of which was thrilling. The two stuck hand in hand together most of the time, the boy always clinging to his sister whenever possible in the panic, and she, just as anxiously clinging to him.
As they knelt and prayed, a rush of men and women knocked them on their backs on the deck and they were trampled on, but somehow or other they stuck to one another and were almost the last to leave the burning ship. They then jumped together into one of the small boats and were taken aboard the Kroonland.
The youngsters are on their way to their parents who reside with a family named Schmuckler at 344 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. Their father has been in the country six years, their mother came out last year and they were left in Russia until their father could get together enough money for their passage. Anxiety about their parents who did not meet them caused the children to break down after telling the story of their adventures and it required the kindly treatment of some of the nurses to restore their confidence.
"We were asleep and were awakened when somebody ran through the boat shouting "Fire," said the boy, Yosel. We were only thinly clothed when we ran out of our cabin and got caught in the jam of many passengers who were scrambling to get to the upper deck.
"We were so small that we got knocked down and trampled on but when we were broken apart, Chaya always seemed to get hold of my coat and as far as we were able we kept hand in hand.
"When we got to the upper deck we saw people running up and down. We didn't know which way to run but we ran with some of the crowd. Some people knelt down and prayed and we got down and prayed too, but a lot of people knocked us off our knees - they couldn't see us, we were so small.
"Then people started to run back to the lower deck. We ran there too. Then we saw a large fire. We started running upstairs again. Then there was a big explosion.
We shivered from the cold on the upper deck and when everybody was running up and down we saw three women throw their babies into the sea. We saw the sailors letting some boats down but they were drowned because the boats broke in two."
"After we were nearly numb from the cold, the flames got nearer to us and then it became so hot that I thought we should suffocate. The crowd kept pushing up to the front of the boat and we squeezed into the crowd until we got in the middle. We were afraid we were going to be trampled on then. Sometimes we were squeezed so tight that we couldn't get our breath. And it was so hot. Friday morning when the boats came along they shouted to us to jump into them and Chaya and I jumped. That's how we were saved.'
(2)

38) (Case No. 34. (Lithuanian.)). Another easy case. This are members of the Burgnon or Buignon family, of Chicago, Illinois. The mother, who arrived first aboard the Carmania, is recorded on line 23 of manifest pages 397 and 396 as being Flora Burgnon, aged 26 (rather than 27) from Roumania but with a place not indicated, as I read the record. The child arrived later aboard the Uranium, as recorded on line 5 of manifest pages 418 and 417. Verona Buignon, aged 3, Hungary/Roumanian, travelling to her parents - George and Flora Burgnon in Chicago. I do not know by which vessel she would have been rescued but it seems not to have been La Touraine and probably then is Devonian since all of the other passengers on that vessel, all of them children, would seem to have originated from those two vessels. (2)

39) (Case No. 55. (German.)). There are some interesting aspects to this small family group, whose identity seems to be however quite clear.

Both are members of the Donath or Donat family, travelling to Springhill, Canada, surely in Nova Scotia rather than in Quebec as listed in the manifest (husband was a miner). They both arrived at Quebec aboard the Canada, as recorded on manifest page 473. Recorded as Henriette Donath, aged 19, and Margarite Donath, a girl aged 1. Going to Springhill, Quebec per that listing. Strange initially, perhaps, is the fact that in trying to find them in the manifests, I happened to see that they would seem to have been initially listed in the Carmania manifest on pages 397 and 396 as Henrietta and Hedvig Donat and then the names were deleted. There is a logic to that. Both the Carmania and the Canada left Liverpool on the very same day, i.e. October 18, 1913, one vessel destined for New York and the other destined for Canada. I presume that the manifests were being prepared for both vessels and they made a mistake and then corrected it when they realised that the Donath's destination was in fact Canada. Interesting none the less. The child seems to be listed as arriving twice on Ellis Island as both Henriette Donath and Hedvig Donat. (2)

Andy Baker has tracked down the grave location of Margarite Donath, the baby girl, who died at the Grosse Île Detention Centre, Quebec, Canada. She was buried, as Hedwig Donath, at the Grosse Île Cemetery. As you can read here.

40) (Case No. 325. (Russian.)). This mother and daughter are named Otto. Both arrived in New York aboard the Campanello having surely been rescued by the Czar. The manifest pages, lines 25 and 26, are 406 and 405. The mother is Katarina Otto, aged 48, and the daughter Paulina Otto, aged 18, both from Seryi, Russia. Going to a son (and brother) in New York City. (2)

41) (Case No. 198. (Pole.)). There are, of course, very few immigrant passengers of this age. The lady is Marie Nickitowitsch, aged 48, from Vienna (Wien), Austria. Headed to a son in Chicago. She was rescued by and arrived in Philadelphia aboard the Seydlitz as per manifest pages 423 and 421. The manifest records the fact that the son's address was indeed lost. (1)

42) (Case No. 274. (Austrian Poles.)). The two children were quite easy to identify. They are Maria Szymcyakewicz, aged 8, and Bromislaw Szymcyakewicz, aged 6. Both were rescued by La Touraine and arrived in New York aboard the Uranium, their arrival being recorded on lines 1 and 2 of manifest pages 418 and 417. Their manifest data, it would seem, was provided by the Red Cross Emergency Relief Committee. En route to Victoria & Karl Szyczakewicz at 1739 Washington Av. in the Bronx, New York City. I thought I would have difficulty in identifying the uncle but that proved to be no problem either. He was Wladislaw Celeukewitz, a labourer aged 32 from Kaugaga, Austria. How do I know he is the uncle? Read on. He arrived aboard the Grosser Kurfürst and his manifest pages, i.e. 432 and 431 (line 10) indicate he was going to Washington St. in New York, to his sister Wictoria Szymankewicz. It is amazing that the records permit such an identification to be accomplished so easily! (3)

43) (Case No. 158. (Russian Jew.)). It is clear who these two children were but their exact family name is quite another matter.

The 16 year old girl is listed as Ester Louczycke, from Lotch?, Russia, manifested on pages 493 and 492 (line 7) and also on page 8. She was rescued by the Rappahannock, was initially landed at Halifax, Canada, and went on to New York aboard the Florizel. Her destination was Temple Street in Patterson, N.Y., the home of her parents named Luchryki or Lonchisky. The boy was manifested as being Abel Lenzutsky, also 16 years of age and from Lotz, Russia. He arrived aboard the Kroonland and his manifest pages, i.e. 469 and 468, line 5, indicate he was a tailor, that his sister was on another ship, and his destination was his father named Lenzutzscy in Paterson, N.Y. The family names are not easy to read! (2)

44) (Case No. 251. (Russian Jew.)). I was not looking for this couple when I found them. No success yet with the other Russian couple I was searching for, however. The family name of this couple is Singer.

The wife, Heme (or Hime) Rifke (or Rifter) Singer, 20 years old, from Wilkowitz, Russia, manifested on pages 469 and 468. (line 2). She was rescued and landed by the Kroonland, and was headed to a cousin in Philadelphia. Her listing said that her husband was on another ship and indeed he was. Abraham Singer, a bookbinder, arrived aboard the Olympic having surely been rescued by the Minneapolis. Line 15 on manifest pages 428 and 427. From Winkowetz, Russia, though Sinkew is also mentioned. (2)

45) (Case No. 18. (Russian Jew.)). In most cases, the Red Cross report data mentions that passengers were separated at the time of rescue. There was no such reference for this couple, who were in fact separated. Nonetheless the identification is clear, I think. The family name is Berman, from Czernegov, Russia, going to the husband's brother in Brooklyn.

The wife, Liebe Berman, 24 years old, would have arrived first aboard the Kroonland. Manifested on pages 469 and 468. (line 13). Her listing said that she was headed to brother-in-law on Fulton Street in Brooklyn and that her husband is on another ship. Her husband, Moses Berman, arrived at Quebec, Canada aboard the Royal Edward, having probably been rescued by the Narragansett.  He was manifested on page 476. Going to his brother Hersch Berman on Filey Street in Brooklyn. (2)

46) (Case No. 19. (Russian Jew.)). A few inconsistencies in the data, but I think we have a match! The two girls are named Bokawslowsky, I believe.

There would seem to be only one pairing that matches the data i.e. with the same family name and aged 17 and 20. Mendel Bokawslowsky, aged 20 and Ruchel Bokawslowsky aged 17. The two arrived together aboard the Kroonland - as manifested on lines 12 and 13 of manifest pages 460 and 459. Sisters. And both described as dressmakers. From Szakassa, Russia and going to a sister in Philadelphia. The inconsistencies? From the Red Cross words, I would have expected them to be going to a New York address rather than one in Philadelphia. And the sister, Rebecca Bokawslowsky, seems not to perfectly fit the report words. But, I am sure that the authors of the report did not expect the words to be read so very exactly 90 years later! (2)

47) (Case No. 113. (Russian Jew.)). There were many immigrants of age 18 and three, in fact, of a very similar occupation i.e. seamstress or dressmaker. But only one who was going to Canada. So I think this girl was named Kaschniski. But see the end of this item.

Ruchel Kaschniski, aged 18, a dressmaker, arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland, as recorded on line 1 on manifest pages 464 and 463. Her destination was Halifax, Nova Scotia, to her sister living there. The sister's name was 'Mrs. F. Abram'. The family name could be Kaschinski or Kasplinski. (1)

48) (Case No. 302. (Russian Jew.)). The family name of these sisters is Weinerman.

Feige Weinerman, aged 18, a milliner, and Liebe Weinerman, aged 16, also a milliner, arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland, as recorded on lines 14 and 15 on manifest pages 469 and 468. Their destination was Philadelphia, to a brother of the same name who indeed paid for both fares. The two sisters are from Winkowitz, Russia. There is a reference to a cousin also arriving. It would seem then that the Weinerman's and the Singer's, who also are from Winkowetz/Winkowitz, Russia are related. The Singer case has been already reviewed above. (2)

49) (Case No. 139. (Russian Jew.)). Another two sisters. The family name is Katske or possibly Kotski.

Feige Katske, aged 22, described for some reason as being a sailor, and Ester Katske, aged 20, also listed as a sailor, arrived in Halifax, Canada, aboard the Rappahannock and then travelled on the Florizel to New York. Their names are recorded on lines 8 and 9 on manifest pages 493 and 492. Their destination was Philadelphia, to a brother-in-law named S. Temchbaum. They are also listed on manifest page 8 and on that page the names read Kotski. (2)

50) (Case No. 65. (Russian Jew.)). A brother and a sister with Eisenberg as the family name.

Maria Eisenberg, aged 18, described as a seamstress, arrived in Halifax, Canada, aboard the Rappahannock and then travelled on the Florizel to New York. Her name is recorded on line 3 on manifest pages 493 and 492. The listing mentions a brother Zasch, as I read the writing, who also was shipwrecked. Her destination was New York City. Josef Eisenberg, aged 16, arrived in Canada aboard the Royal Edward as recorded on manifest page 476. Probably rescued by the Narragansett. Josef was going to his father, William Eisenberg, of Fulton Street in Brooklyn. Maria is also listed on manifest page 8 but that page adds no new data. (2)

51) (Case No. 70. (Russian Jew.)). Another brother and a sister pairing with Fischbein as the family name.

Gene Fischbein, aged 16, a milliner, arrived in New York aboard the Kroonland. The listing (on pages 460 and 459) mentions a brother on another ship and says she was on her way to a brother, J. Fischbein, at a lost address in New York City. Davie Fischbein, aged 18, arrived in Canada aboard the Royal Edward as recorded on manifest page 476. Probably rescued by the Narragansett. Davie was going to his father, Joseel Fischbein, of New York City with address burned and lost. (2)

52) (Case No. 79. (Russian)). The webmaster has now established the identities of a great number of the Volturno survivors but continues to be amazed that it can be possible to identify a case such as this. Since there are so few words and such limited data in the Red Cross report. But the data is sufficient. And we can identify them. The family name is Geduck.

Paraksa Geduck, aged 20, arrived in Halifax aboard the Rappahannock with her son Nikolaj Geduck, just 1 year old. The listing (on page 480) is quite specific. She is confirmed to be a widow, and heading to a married sister. That sister lived in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and the sister's husband is described as being 'a common laborer'. They were Russian - Russian Polish in fact, so the manifest states.

Of related interest, The Globe, published in Toronto, Canada, reported on Monday, October 13, 1913 that Mrs. Geduck Parashe, 20 years old, and Nicoli, her son, eight months old, both of Hamilton, Ont., were among the rescued passengers of the Volturno aboard the Rappahannock. As you can read on page 92. So what was the mother's true family name, I wonder? (2)

53) (Case No. 90. (Galician.)). There would seem to be only one person that fits all the circumstances of this case. Though she is recorded in the Red Cross report as being 18. Her going to Canada is of some importance in my view. Since the Red Cross report is most diligent with Canada references. But I think this girl was named Wojciak.

Wojczik Leokadia, aged 19, of Polish extraction but from Russia, arrived in Halifax, Canada, aboard the Rappahannock, as recorded as the first name on manifest page 480. Her destination was Sydney, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, to join her married sister and brother-in-law living there. In fact, it would seem that the names got reversed on that Canadian manifest and the girl's name was in fact Leocadia Wojciak. There is more data on this case on Rappahannock page 92 and you can see there why I use that different spelling of both given and family names. (1)

54) (Case No. 27. (Russian Jew.)) The identification of this girl was made possible by the text of a report in the New York Times on October 19, 1913. Her name was there indicated to be Hilda Friedman.

Hinda or Hisda Friedman, aged 19 as manifested, from Reschaugorf, Russia, arrived in Halifax aboard the Rappahannock. She travelled onwards to New York aboard the Florizel. Her husband to be, named perhaps Louis Gerschezson (that name may not be perfect. See line 6 on page 492), had not been made aware that she had even been rescued. Her arrival is recorded on manifest pages 8 & 493. The wedding was to take place per the New York Times 'at once'. (1)

If any visitor can clarify (or correct) or provide more information about any of these matters, I would truly welcome their help. And if any link does not work correctly for you, do let me know!

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