THE SUNDERLAND SITE - PAGE 048
SHIPBUILDERS - PAGE 7
May I suggest that you navigate the site via the index on page 001.PRIOR PAGE / NEXT PAGE
On this page ... Blumer, page bottom (greeting cards from Sunderland).
Do you want to make a comment? A site guestbook is here.
To search for specific text on this page, just press 'CTRL + F' & then enter your search term.
First a few images. Hover your mouse over each thumbnail to read the subject matter.
The operational dates above are surely not perfect. A 'best effort' at a sequence, if you will. If you can refine the information, do be in touch.
Information on the history of 'Blumer' of Sunderland seems to be quite limited. 'Where Ships Are Born' provides one page of data, however, & I am grateful for that. But much of the data that follows is thanks to the efforts of Ray Ranns, (who lives near Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire, U.K.), a great great grandson of John Blumer. Ray has been most busy assembling data about the family history, building upon materials assembled by his father 'Noel Blumer Ranns'. We thank them both & particularly Ray, whose data has been the major source of information in this section.
Now this page, indeed the whole site, focuses on Sunderland & its shipbuilders. Of which John Blumer was one. But you should also know that the Blumer family was involved in shipbuilding in nearby Hartlepool. Luke Blumer (1793/1873) (2), a prominent citizen of Hartlepool indeed, commenced a shipbuilding business entitled 'Luke Blumer & Son' (1) in Hartlepool in 1848 with his son George Blumer (1817/1867). While the business was mainly in the repair of ships they did keep their workforce busy with new construction when the repair business was quiet. And they built 10 vessels during the short lifetime of the firm. Which ceased to exist at or about the time that George Blumer died in 1867.
Now Luke Blumer (2) was the fifth son of Luke Blumer (1757/1840) (1), the son of a blacksmith from Soho, London. Luke Blumer's (1) third son was William Blumer (1789/1850) and it is William's son John Blumer (1832/1913) who commenced shipbuilding in Sunderland. A fine image of John Blumer, dating from perhaps 1890/1900, is at left below.
The page in 'Where Ships Are Born' states that John commenced a shipbuilding business at North Sands in 1859. That date may well be incorrect, however, since this fine page, dating from 1891, references him (about 30% down) as being a builder at that location nine years earlier, in 1850, when John was just 18 years old only. The business was at that location until 1864, when Mr. Joseph L. Thompson took over the 'Blumer' site on North Sands (from 1891 source above).
John Blumer moved his shipbuilding business to the north end of North Dock. To a site previously occupied by Oswald Hand.
John Blumer was a most religious man, it would appear, & was a pillar of the Non Conformist Church, which flourished in the industrial towns as a reaction to poverty & the evils of drink.
A beautiful engraved gold watch, presented, on Oct. 23, 1882, as a token of respect, to Mr. Richard Cumming by the workmen & officials of Messrs. J. Blumer & Co., Sunderland. Richard Cumming (1813/?) was the GGG grandfather of Larry Wailing, Aron McIntyre's father in law. It is Aron who kindly provided these fine images. And we now know, thanks to Ray Ranns, that the award to Richard Cumming, foreman plater, was referenced in the 'Sunderland Daily Echo and Shipping Gazette', of Oct. 26, 1882. As you can read here.
As this page was updated in Feb. 2017, this splendid watch was available for purchase. The chain is 9 caret & weighs 80 grams, and the watch case is 18 caret and weighs 48 grams. Should you have an interest in acquiring the watch, or wish to learn more about it. you might contact the webmaster who will gladly put you in contact with its owner.
The business remained at North Dock for the rest of its life - i.e. to 1922, I have read, but I am not 100% sure of that - see a few paragraphs below re Cydonia.
I should add that the fine New Zealand based 'Miramar' site ('search by shipbuilder' link & type in 'Blumer') indicates the following business names that were also used i) 'Pace, Blumer', ii) 'Haswell & Blumer' & iii) 'J. Blumer'. I am not sure at what periods in time such names were in actual use. However, the 'Pace' of 'Pace, Blumer' refers to Robert Pace, a shipwright who was foreman for George Booth. It would seem that Robert Pace & John Blumer went into business together &, in view of the business name, it would seem that Pace was the senior partner. They took over Booth's yard at North Sands when the Booth family emigrated to New Zealand in 1859. George Booth was John Blumer's brother in law. How long were they in business together? We do not know the exact answer to that question but it probably was from 1859 through 1864. At which date, John Blumer set up his new shipbuilding business at North Dock & Robert Pace did the same at Southwick.
These next words are essentially a repeat of a section at the Robert Pace entry, which words have relevance here also. 'It is of interest to note that 'David Elliott' & 'Andrew Pace' family traditions both state that the emigration of Robert to the U.S. was precipitated by a fire at the Pace & Blumer shipyard. That tradition says that the fire took place on a Sunday & that John Blumer (a most religious man) would not allow the fire to be put out on a Sunday. So all was lost. But no date is available for that fire and its existence has not yet been confirmed by contemporary records. David indicates that the Pace family were members of the Salvation Army & speculates that maybe neither party was prepared to tackle any fire on the Sabbath! Andrew confirms that the association of the Pace family with the Salvation Army was very long term indeed, & is so in Australia today (in early 2009).' Is it possible that you have data about this most interesting matter?
A year after the move to North Dock, i.e. 1865, Colonel Arthur Robson joined the firm, which then became 'Blumer and Company'. It would seem that Colonel Robson was the major supplier of timber to the firm & indeed financed it. Iron shipbuilding commenced at that time. The company earned a reputation for building fine ships, & for being safe - not a life lost re any of the 40 ships it built in its first 10 years.
John Blumer retired from the business on December 31, 1895. The partnership which existed prior to that date, the partnership of Arthur Robson & John Blumer, styled 'John Blumer and Co.' was then dissolved. And a new partnership of identical name continued, the new partners being Arthur Robson, Thomas Rickaby Blumer & William Blumer.
I am advised that 'Blumers' built a ship named 'John Blumer' in 1914, the year after John Blumer died in retirement. A notice about John Blumer's death, can be seen here (PERSONAL, 85% down), & also here. And a vessel named 'William Blumer' in 1920.
The company failed during the shipbuilding slump that followed WW1, after completing Ixia in Jul. 1922. It would seem to have built 258 vessels in its lifetime at North Dock, the last such vessel, Cydonia, a cargo ship of 3517 tons, being on the stocks for 4 years, & finally launched on Dec. 3, 1926.
Ray Ranns has kindly provided a newspaper cutting which advises that on Feb. 2, 1927, it was resolved that the company, i.e. John Blumer & Company Limited, be voluntarily wound up & its assets distributed. As you can read here. The yard itself was dismantled that year. And William Blumer died at Harrogate soon thereafter, leaving an estate of £373,144 - I think that value is correct, the newspaper cutting being quite difficult to read.
You are invited to visit this page for some general data about 'Blumer'.
And next a splendid image, taken at Blumers in the early 1900s, shown here thanks to the kindness of Malcolm Fraser of Durham City. The image shows James Fraser (1867/1941), Malcolm's grandfather, a 'freelance mast maker'. Photographed with a set of his masts during assembly at Blumers North Dock yard & standing where 'Brunel Drive' is today. At that time, I am advised, a time before welding became the norm, masts were riveted together. Shipbuilding was in the Fraser family's blood - a common Sunderland story perhaps. James's three sons were platers & Malcolm himself, later, in the early 1950s, served his own engineering apprenticeship at Doxfords. Malcolm, we thank you! Two more fine images provided by Malcolm are visible through thumbnails above.
Names of just a few of the vessels constructed by 'Blumer' of Sunderland - as I happen to spot references to them. In tables in build date sequence. And alphabetic within a year. Ray Ranns has assembled data on a great many 'Blumer' built vessels. And Michael Orpin has many more. In time, maybe, I will catch up with both of them!
Lists? Firstly there is, on site, a 'Blumer' build list from its earliest days in 1859 thru to the very end. Here. Miramar lists? 9 pages, (highest hull number on page). It used to be that you could click on the links that follow & get to the relevant Miramar page. But no longer! The new procedure must be to go to Miramar (here) & log in (you must be registered to view any page). And once you are logged in, return to this page & all the following links should work for you:- 29, 60, 91, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 258. (258) Data is now on site re 41% of them!
'BLUMER' SHIPS BUILT AT NORTH SANDS
At present, I list only six vessels built by 'Blumer' at North Sands. You should know, however, that Michael Orpin of Jersey, whose wife is descended from Luke Blumer (Darlington branch), is also researching the family & yard histories. And he has assembled a list of 18 vessels constructed at North Sands in the years of 1859 through 1865. Michael's data is now included in the 'Blumer' build list now on site.
263 (or 276) tons
A 2 masted, snow rigged ship. Built for Robert Gayner, of Sunderland. 'Where Ships Are Born' indicates that the Avon was 'in some records credited to Pace, Blumer's foreman, but the explanation might be that Pace had a share in the business during those early days'. Or maybe it was the other way around? In view of the business name of 'Pace, Blumer' referred to above. The webmaster has a limited number of 'Lloyd's Registers' available to him (image at left) &, for what would appear to be Avon's entire life, they record 'Pace' as the builder. 103.5 ft. long, signal letters PRNJ. Built, it would seem for Gayner of Sunderland, & owned as to 48/64 by R. H. Gayner. And as to 16/64 by H. F. Fisher. On Feb. 10, 1873, the vessel was, I have read, transferred to North Shields. But at that time, J. (John) Dobson, of Blyth, not far N. of Newcastle, became the owner - only later, in or about 1879, was Dobson recorded as being based at North Shields. By 1883/84, 'J. Davison' of North Shields owned the vessel. What later happened to the ship? I have not read the circumstances but do we have a hint. The 1883/84 edition of 'Lloyd's' notes the vessel to be 'missing'. But ... Thanks to Sheila Buttinger we now know a little more. Her family ancestor Joseph T. (Thomas) Gilhespie was reported dead at sea in 1883 - drowned as a result of the total wreck, on Jan. 22, 1883, of Avon. While en route from Seaham to Devonport with Ralph Davison, of Crofton Mills, Blyth, Northumberland, in command. Sheila advises that the name was correctly 'Gilhespie' rather than 'Gillespie' as reported. Can you add anything?
2 Ella Gladstone
A brig. A cargo ship. Per 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (all data re Ella Gladstone). 98.3 ft long, crew of 9 or 10, signal letters QBHG. Built for 'Gladstone' of Liverpool. Only modest info is WWW available. To New York in 1861. Would seem to have been active in Australian/New Zealand ('NZ') area for most of its life. The above links are mainly to vessel arrival records. The vessel arrived at Onehunga, Auckland, NZ, from Hobart Town, Tasmania, on May 12, 1864, with a varied cargo. A Jan. 13, 1869, voyage from Melbourne to Sydney, New South Wales. And on Dec. 11, 1870 from Port Mauritius (Indian Ocean, E. of Madagascar) to Sydney, with 3 passengers. The Mercantile Navy List of 1870 (go right to p#116) states Corbin Lamb of Port Adelaide, South Australia, to be the vessel's owner. Later? owned by 'G. Wilson & J. Walsh'. A Jun. 1875 voyage from Adelaide to Hobart with wheat etc. The vessel ran ashore in a gale at Quindalup, 130 miles S. of Perth/Fremantle, Western Australia, on Jul. 21, 1878, with a cargo of timber. No lives were lost. Was later re-floated, on Jan. 15, 1879, but condemned as un-seaworthy. Much of above data originated with Mori Flapan of Sydney, Australia (thanks again!). Can you add anything?
1860 4 Zetus
A barque. Per 1 & 2 (both data re 1869 wreck). Built for 'Milburn', of Blyth, Northumberland. Registered at Shields. Lloyd's Register of 1861/62 states that the vessel was built by Pace. Only modest info is WWW available - of her sad end. Vessel was out of Hull (or Aberdeen), when on May 16, 1869, with i) Captain W. Taylor or ii) Captain Burn in command, with a cargo of coal, it was driven ashore in a hurricane on Caribou reef or Island, Anticosti Island (cannot spot exactly where), in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. All hands lost. The sinking of Zetus, swiftly broken up by the mountainous waves, was witnessed by 'Donald', mate of Margaret, which vessel suffered the same fate, Donald being the sole survivor. How extraordinary that detail of what happened in May 1869 is available to us today thanks to a letter sent to New Zealand ('NZ') & published in the 'Nelson Examiner ...', a NZ newspaper, in Sep. 1869. And now WWW available. Can you add anything?
230 (later 228) tons
A snow or brig. Per 1 (image list, Australia). 99 ft. long, signal letters QBFL. Matfen? A village in Northumberland, located W. of Newcastle. The webmaster has many editions of Lloyd's Register available to him ex 'Google' books, thru 1885/86 - see left. The vessel's initial owner was 'Gregory & Co.', of Blyth, intended for use, it would appear, in the Baltic & Mediterranean trades. Initially registered, presumably in error, as 'Matfon' - an 1861/62 typo! From 1876/77, the vessel was registered at Shields. The Mercantile Navy List of 1880 states the owner to be R. Gregory of East Matfen, Northumberland. In the 1882/83 edition of Lloyd's Register, 'W. Dixon' became the vessel's owners, also of Shields. The vessel is not listed in the 1887/88 edition of Lloyd's Register, which may mean that the vessel had been lost or broken up but it could also mean that there was a change of vessel name. 1 indicates that an image of a brig (I presume that 'bg' means brig) of the name is available in Australia. The builder was 'Pace', with no reference to 'Blumer'. We thank Michael Orpin for data. Alan Gibson advises (thanks!) that his great grandfather George Miller ('Miller') was the ship's master. Yes indeed! From 1874/75 to 1885/86 as per the Lloyd's data now made available at left, though 'Wood' would seem to have been the vessel's Master for a short time to 1885/86 when Miller took over command again. Can you tell us anything to add to the history? That Australian image?
6 Star of Peace
235 (or 227) tons
A brig. Per 1, 2 & 3 (all data). Built for 'Stafford', of Blyth, Northumberland. (F. Stafford, later (1870 & 1880) Francis Stafford, both of Blyth). 123 ft. long. Many vessels of the name. The vessel rescued the crew of a sinking Belgian ship (name not stated) in 1878; an oil painting of scene by Henry Loos (commissioned by the Belgian government), exists; vessel then captained by William Heatley. Later in its life, the vessel was owned by H. Andrews of North Shields. Denis Wederell of New Zealand ('NZ'), indicated in 2001 that Star of Peace traded from Blyth to Lisbon, Portugal & onwards to Central America & Brazil, but visited Australia in 1879. Data essentially confirmed by Bill Heatley who adds that a voyage to Australia or NZ was 'not typical'. 'Wederell' family tradition was that vessel was lost, William Heatley in command, on NZ coast in 1888/89. But Bill Heatley indicates that vessel, with ancestor William Heatley in command (he drowned), was in fact sunk off Queensland in 1891. Only modest info is WWW available. It would be good to link to an image, the oil painting, perhaps! Can you add anything?
'BLUMER' SHIPS BUILT AT NORTH DOCK
Ray Ranns advises me that a new hull numbering series was commenced when the move was made to North Dock. Commencing at No. 1 again. There are 100 ships listed on this page. A 2nd 'Blumer' page is available here.
A composite barque. Per 1 (wreck, Isle of Wight), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Built for Walker & Co., of Sunderland. On Feb. 4, 1916, the vessel, then Norwegian owned, got into difficulties off Atherfield Point, Isle of Wight, & in very bad weather ran ashore at nearby Brook (or Brooke?). Lifeboat Susan Ashley, 35 ft. long, was launched to effect a rescue, but could not reach the vessel which was being pounded by high seas. 8 of the crew jumped into the sea & were picked up, with one of the 8 dying of exposure in the lifeboat. The captain stayed with his ship - his body was later washed ashore. The ship 'was reduced to matchwood'. 2 lives were lost. Ben Jacobs, coxswain (1892-1917) of Susan Ashley, was awarded a silver medal for the rescue though I cannot tell you which particular medal. The name plate of the vessel survived & is in Brighstone village museum. Can you add anything?
A composite barque. Per 1 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 138.0 ft. long perpendicular to perpendicular, signal letters HVRN. The webmaster has many editions of 'Lloyd's Registers' available to him (image at left) & for the years of the vessel's life thru 1885/86, the owner is recorded as being 'Ritson & Co.' soon 'F. W. Ritson & Co.', of Sunderland. The 'F' stands for Francis. Initially intended for trade to India, within a few years the vessel was trading to South America (Valparaiso, Chile) & to China. I am advised that there are many U.K. newspaper references to the vessel travelling to Valparaiso. On Jan. 16, 1874, the vessel, arriving at Greenock, River Clyde, from Java, was driven violently by high winds against H.M.S. Black Prince. Contest's lower and both double topsail yards were carried away. Julian Ellis advises (thanks Julian!) that the Public Records Office records Capt. John Lawrence Walsh ('Walsh'), of Southport. as becoming the new owner of Contest in May 1889. Walsh, Julian's great grandfather, had sold his sixth ship, Seaward, a barque, in Aug/Sep 1888. Walsh had captained Seaward & surely captained Contest also - Julian's family lore talks of Contest voyages in the 'colonial trade' around Cape Horn, with Walsh's wife & family travelling with him & the birth of 'Aunty Adelaide' in Adelaide, Australia. The 1889/90 edition of Lloyd's indicates that A. Goffin was master of Contest then still owned by Walsh. In Oct. 1890, Walsh sold Contest for £2,000, became a ship broker, & bought Elizabeth, a ship of 400 tons. The venture did not end up well for Walsh as you can read here. Contest may well have continued to trade to China. The 1894/95 edition of Lloyd's Register records 'N. E. A. Moller' (correctly Nils Eric Amelon Möller), of Shanghai, China, as the vessel's then owner. It would seem that Möller acquired it from a 'Miss H. Clappison'. Möller was still the owner in 1889/90, the last year for which Lloyd's data is readily available to the webmaster. I wonder what eventually happened to the vessel. Anything you can add?
9 Maria Fidela
A composite barque. Per 1 (data), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 161.6 ft. (49.29 metres) long, signal letters NRLW. Am grateful for link 1, which provided, for a long time, the only WWW data I was able to find. Built for 'C. Ansoleaga', of Manila, the Philippines, & used on Manila to Liverpool & London trade routes. On Feb. 19, 1875, the vessel was sold to 'Killick, Martin & Ritchie', of London, & renamed Lucia. And on May 21, 1886, the vessel was sold to Thomas Roberts, of Llanelly, Carmarthenshire. And sold again, on Feb. 14, 1891, to 'H. Calppison' (could it mean Clappison?) of Shanghai, China. In 1895, The vessel was sold to 'N. (Nils) E. A. Möller', also of Shanghai. Later owned by 'Möller Bros'. On Sep. 19, 1904, while en route from Shanghai to Newchang, (Niu-chuang, Liaoning Province, Manchuria, China, now Ying-k’ou), the vessel struck a mine off Port Arthur & sank. Only one of the crew of 16 was saved. Can you add anything?
577, later 596 tons
A 3-masted composite barque. Per 1 ('pdf', 2005 wreck inspection report, extensive data, images, the 'pdf' is there but is reluctant to display for some reason), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 154.1 ft. long, signal letters HDTG. Built for Ritson & Co., of Sunderland. The Mercantile Navy Lists of 1870 & 1880 record Francis Ritson as her then owner. Metalled in May 1887. The vessel was sold, it would appear, in Dec. 1887. In 1889, the vessel was owned by 'W. (William) Yeoman' of Stratford, Essex, i.e. London. As is confirmed by the Mercantile Navy List of 1890. On Sep. 25, 1889, the vessel suffered a fire in her hold, & was run aground as a result. There is a wreck, of 2 parts, mostly buried in the sands, 1 mile SE of Horsburgh Island, Port Refuge, Cocos (Keeling) Islands. (an Australian territory located in the Indian Ocean, about halfway between Australia & Sri Lanka). At 12.05.673S/96.51.336E. A shallow-water snorkel dive site, today. The inspection report concludes that the wreck is, indeed, that of Phaeton. Can you add anything?
11 Abbey Holme
An iron barque. Per 1 (loss in 1890 extensive detail), 2 (image), 3 (arrivals in Queensland, Australia), 4 (NY Times article, Jul. 17, 1872), 5 (search 'ship registers' for vessel name), 6 (Brisbane 1934 newspaper article, Abbey Holme), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 157.7 ft. long, signal letters JHFP. Built in Sep. 1869 for Nicholson & Co., & registered at Liverpool. The vessel was sold, in or prior to 1870, to Wilfrid Hine of Liverpool, i.e. 'Holme Line' (owned by Wilfred & Alfred Hine) of Maryport, Solway Firth, Cumberland. Indeed the vessel was the first Holme Line fleet vessel. Later registered at Maryport. Engaged in the Australian emigrant trade. In years 1871 thru 1876, the vessel made 5 voyages to Brisbane/Moreton Bay, Australia. On Jul. 2, 1872, in the very early morning, Captain W. Robinson in command, while off the Isle of Wight en route from the Thames to Brisbane, the vessel was in collision with Lapwing, an 841 ton steamer built in 1868, en route from Liverpool to Rotterdam. Lapwing rapidly sank. 19 lives (Lapwing) were lost. Three of the Lapwing crew jumped aboard Abbey Holme, while others were rescued by passing ships. Abbey Holme was holed in 2 places, one of them in the bow, 5 ft. by 3 ft. in size. After temporary repairs were effected, the vessel was towed by tug Camel to Portsmouth, where part of her cargo was removed & she was placed in dry dock to effect permanent repairs. And then resumed her voyage to Brisbane. In early Apl. 1890, Captain J. H. Rich in command, while being towed from Leith to Middlesbrough, a strong NE gale arose when she was leaving the Tyne. The vessel's tow parted & she was driven onto the inside of Shields Pier, breaking up almost immediately. Then registered at Liverpool. All of the crew, i.e. the captain, his wife & eight seamen, were saved. I read that the wreck was reported in 'The Times' newspaper on Apl. 9, 1890, p.10. I need to be able to access that article. Can you add anything? An image, perhaps?
12 City of Auckland
816 (or 780) tons
A full rigged composite ship. An immigrant ship. Per 1 (ref. '1878 CITY OF AUCKLAND'), 2 (account of disaster), 3 (extensive data & image), 4 (ref. to builder & an image in 'Settlement by Sail: 19th century immigration to New Zealand', 1991, by Gainor W. Jackson - the last thumbnail image at left), 5 (builder ref. at page bottom), 6 (1871 fire inquest), 7 & 8 (articles in NZ newspapers), 9 (1878 wreck & salvage, 25% down), 10 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 172.2 (or 172.3 or 190) ft. long. The vessel was launched by Mrs Ashby, wife of William Ashby, the ship's captain, on Jul. 6, 1869. Registered at London. Built for Suart & Co. of London, however the Mercantile Navy List of 1870 states George Suart Simpson to be the vessel's owner. 4 states that the vessel was owned by 'Stewart and Simpson', of London & others (in 1878, Mr. Seccombe, a brewer of Auckland, was a part owner & it would seem that Captain George T. (Tolman) Ralls was a part owner also). Extensive data is provided at above links & others. The vessel made 10 voyages to New Zealand ('NZ'), the final 1878 voyage ending in disaster. On Jan. 24, 1871, the vessel caught fire at Auckland, NZ. To put out the fire, it was scuttled & re-floated 2 days later. On Jul. 13, 1878, Capt. George T. Ralls in command, the vessel left London for Napier & Auckland, NZ, with a crew of 33 & 225 immigrants (other numbers are stated) & a cargo of railway iron for New Zealand Shipping Company. The vessel ran ashore in a gale & poor visibility (fog) at 9 p.m. on Oct. 22, 1878, at Otaki Beach, W. coast of N. Island, NZ. Close to the wreck of Felixstowe, which had gone ashore 9 days earlier. No loss of life, however the Captain had to threaten passengers to maintain control & avoid panic. Threaten? Indeed! He battened down the hatches to try to keep the passengers below deck & avoid them rushing the boats - the passengers got out & the boats had to be guarded. Next morning, the survivors hiked, or were conveyed in bullock drays, 12 miles S. to Waikanae, to board Hinemoa for the trip to Wellington & Napier. Vessel a total loss. Grounding due to navigation error in poor conditions. Ralls misidentified Kapiti Island as being Stephen's Island, a mistake that others including Felixstowe had also made. Captain not held at blame. Have read that the iron mast of the ship stuck out of the sand at Otaki until a flood destroyed it on Dec. 22, 1936. The wreck was sold, for $300, to J. C. Cooper, of Wellington, who sold it a few days later to Bowe, Birchley and Company, who hoped to successfully re-float the ship. The sails were sold for $120. The pig iron for $25 only to a Mr. Boonstra. Salvage continued into 1881. Colleen Bawn, a tiny schooner, was wrecked at Otaki on Apl. 23, 1879 with pig iron ex the City of Auckland wreck. We thank Ian Church for much of the wreck detail - at 9 ex 'The Wreck of the Hydrabad', published in 1978. Peter Jenkins, of New Zealand, advises (thanks!) that William Jenkins, his great grandfather, was awarded the Royal Humane Society medal for the part he & his whaler crew played in the rescue of some 240 passengers/crew. He later built a home with timbers from the ship - a house that still stands today. Can you add anything? The 1878 Inquest Report?
974 (or 973) tons
An iron cargo ship, schooner rigged. Per 1 [Wilson Line, Thurso (1)], 2 (Board of Trade inquiry into Dec. 1875 grounding, ex 'Accounts and Papers', published 1876, a 'Google' book), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 159.7 ft. long, speed? Built for Jackson, Beaumont & Co., of Hull. John P. (Proudlove) Beaumont maybe the principal of 'Beaumont'. On Dec. 8, 1875, Eastella, then owned by 'Mr. Samuel Brook Jackson, (of Hull) John Proudlove Beaumont and others', Charles Neubauer in command, left Riga, Latvia, bound for Dunkirk, France, with a crew of 21 all told. The vessel left Elsinore, Denmark, in thick foggy weather & at 2:00 a.m. on Dec. 16, 1875, far off course, she ran aground on Long Sand, which would seem to be in the Thames Estuary, Essex. A few hours later she floated free & the vessel continued her voyage. Off Calais, with a pilot aboard, she ran aground a second time. Again she got off in 2 or three hours. And entering Dunkirk she collided with a smack. The vessel ended up at Victoria Dock, London, to effect repairs. It would seem that after the ship docked at London, its first mate died. And for that reason it is not known why the ship had been so very far off course as to run aground at Long Sand. In non-shipping parlance - a bad day at the office! In 1886, the vessel was sold to 'Thomas Wilson, Sons & Company Limited' (Wilson Line), of Hull, & renamed Thurso. The Hull Museum may have an image of the ship but it is not WWW available. In 1894, the vessel was sold to 'Thompson, Elliott and Co.', of Newcastle, with no change of vessel name. Miramar advises us (thanks!) that on Feb. 10, 1894, the vessel left the Tyne & went missing, approx. on Feb. 12, 1894, W. of Jutland, Denmark. 15 lives were lost. Now, thanks to Alan Craxford, we can provide a newspaper cutting about the loss from the Shields Daily Gazette and Shipping Telegraph of Apl. 24, 1894. The vessel was, at the time of her loss, a weekly trader from the Tyne to Hamburg, Germany. George Hollingshead was her captain when she went missing, while James William Nessworthy (or Nesworthy), an able seaman & a member of Alan's family, was amongst those who were lost. WWW data about the ship is still quite limited. Can anybody add anything?
14 E. J. Spence
537 (or 519 or 579) tons
An iron barque. Per 1 (4th item down), 2 (essentially the same data), 3 (re an 1875 voyage), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 159.7 ft. long, signal letters WMNJ. The vessel was built for 'J. Spence' of Melbourne, Australia. Registered at Melbourne. The vessel's maiden voyage was to Australia. 'A well known Mauritius trader.' The webmaster has a few editions of Lloyd's Register available to him from 'Google' books, thru 1889/90 - see left. In 1880/81, the vessel became owned by 'Spence, Bros' with Joshua H. Gill ('Gill') the Master. Elaine Clark advises (thanks!) that her great grandfather, William Hine, when 23 years old, served as an able bodied seaman aboard the ship from Oct. 31, 1887 to Jan. 18, 1888, specifically on a voyage from San Francisco to Hong Kong. Gill signed William Hine's discharge papers. By 1887/88, A. Brown, of Melbourne, was the owner. And in 1889/90 the owners became 'C. Jacobs & Sons', also of Melbourne. I have no data later than that. Miramar tells us that the vessel was broken up in 1926. WWW data is most limited. Can you add anything?
776 (later 758 & 825) tons
A schooner-rigged cargo ship. Per 1 (Compagnie Havraise, Emma), 2 (1888 wreck inquiry report, also available as a 'pdf'), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 61.3 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 201.0 ft., signal letters JCHT. The vessel was built for 'C. Wachter' of Le Havre, France. The webmaster has a few editions of Lloyd's Register available to him from 'Google' books, thru 1889/90 - see left, but there are no listings for the vessel in the 1872/73, 1873/74 & 1874/75 editions. In 1875, the vessel was sold to 'E. Grosos & Co.' i.e. 'Armement Eugène Grosos', also of Le Havre. The predecessor of 'Compagnie Havraise Peninsulaire Navigation à Vapeur', also of Havre, formed in 1882. Which company served Spain, Algeria, & southern France (Marseilles & Port-Vendres). By 1887/88 the vessel must have been modified - it became 197.1 ft. in length, 758 gross tons, & with replacement engines. In 1888, the vessel was sold to J. Laing of Sunderland & was modified again - became 204.4 ft. in length & 825 tons gross. The loss of the vessel in Sep. 1888 was noted in the 1889/90 register. 'J. Laing' means James Laing, a Sunderland J.P. (Justice of the Peace). On Sep. 3, 1888, the vessel left Sunderland for Bordeaux, France with a cargo of 1,012 tons of coal & bunker coal, William H. (Henry) Lambert ('Lambert') in command & a crew of 15 all told. The vessel arrived off Ushant, (an island off the French Brittany coast) & took the inside passage between Ushant & mainland France. At about 9:35 p.m. on Sep. 6, 1888, the vessel sighted Corsen Light, & then, the passage being narrow, went to port to enable another steamer to pass in the other direction. Emma soon struck the Basse du Chenal rocks, about a mile from Cape St. Mathieus Light, with her bilge, heeled to port, & continued on. Seriously damaged, it was sinking fast by the head & 5 minutes after the impact it sank in deep water. The entire crew made St. Mathieus Lighthouse in their boats & eventually landed at Brest, France, at 4:00 a.m. on Sep. 7, 1888. The later inquiry (#3624) determined that Lambert alone was at fault, in having taken a difficult passage at night, & having got too far to windward. He was admonished to avoid intricate navigation at night time in the future. Lambert, the great grandfather of site contributor Derek Lambert, later commanded vessels of the Dale Line. And his son, Charles Lambert, later captained four Prince Line vessels. Can you add anything?
894 (later 874) tons
City of Oporto
A schooner-rigged cargo ship. Per 1 (25% down), 2 (Westray family history), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 215 ft. 7 in. long, signal letters LFWP. Marcasite? An iron sulphide mineral, sometimes called white iron pyrite. I believe that the vessel was initially owned by Culliford & Co., of Sunderland, which likely means J. H. W. Culliford & others, in shares. Per 1 & 2, from 1875 to 1882, the vessel was owned by 'Coverley & Westray', (not Coverlay ..., I think), of London, but registered at Sunderland. It would seem that 'Coverley' were related to 'J. B. Westray & Company' & engaged in the shipment of wine ex Portugal. But the Lloyds Registers seem not to agree with that. The webmaster has just a few editions of Lloyd's Register available to him from 'Google' books, thru 1889/90 - see left. They indicate that by 1878/79 the vessel was owned by 'Palgrave Murphy & Co.' ('Palgrave'), of Dublin, &, per Miramar in 1882 (certainly by 1883/84) the vessel was renamed City of Oporto. (1881/82 LR page 882). Palgrave would also seem to have been in the Portuguese wine business. Registered at Dublin. Miramar advises us that the vessel was hulked in 1914. Likely sold to 'Nobels Explosives, Ltd.', for that purpose. WWW data about the vessel is most limited. Can you add anything? An image, perhaps?
An iron passenger/cargo steamer. Per 1 (P&O), 2 (data), 3 (an undated image from a vanished webpage, loading pilchards at Penzance, Cornwall, for the Mediterranean. But the correct vessel?), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 72.39 metres (237.5 ft. [or 287.6 ft. which seems to be incorrect]) long, one funnel, speed of 11 knots, 3 masts. Purchased, when already completed it would seem, at the cost of £26,500 by The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company for use as a 'coal, stores and cargo carrier' in the Far East. A now non-existent website stated that the vessel was 'arguably P&O’s first real cargo ship'. Initially used for two Alexandria, Egypt, to Venice, Italy, voyages. A return voyage in 1875 - Hong Kong/Cookstown/ Sydney (I cannot identify 'Cookstown'. It might mean Cooktown, then a gold mining boom town at the NE tip of Australia). A voyage in late 1880 from Bombay to Suez via Aden, Hodeida, Jeddah, Yenbo (2 pilgrimage ports for Mecca & Medina in Saudi Arabia), Tor & return to Karachi, Pakistan. An 1881 return voyage from Hong Kong to Saigon, Vietnam. In Dec. 1881, then i) in need of new boilers & ii) considered to be underpowered, was sold for approx. £3,338 to 'Hajee Cassum Joosub' ('Joosub'), of Bombay, India. Joosub was most active in the pilgrimage trade to Jeddah. On May 6, 1886, while en route from Bombay to Zanzibar via Mauritius with 123 passengers & general cargo, the vessel was wrecked off Pemba Island (off the coast of Tanzania). Loss of life? The source of most of the above data, is now long gone. Can you add anything? Data or an image, perhaps?
636 (later 645) tons
A collier. Per 1 (hull of Dora, offered at auction in 1894), 2 (image, Dora, in 'Mines de Lambton', an 1891 volume), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 56.8 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 186.4 ft., signal letters LWGF. The webmaster has available a few Lloyd's Registers of the applicable period, ex Google Books, but only thru 1890/91 (see left). Built for J. D. Hill & Co., of London. In the 1876/77 edition of Lloyd's, the owners had become 'J. Young Ehlers & Co.', also of London. Ownership changed again & by the 1882/83 edition the 'Earl of Durham' was the registered owner. I presume that throughout its life the vessel would likely have carried coal from the north east to Southern England & to continental ports. In early Jan. 1894, the vessel was en route, in ballast, from Portsmouth to Sunderland. While I have read nothing of the circumstances, the vessel ran aground & was wrecked at Roker on Jan. 7, 1894. The hull was later offered for sale at auction on Jan. 27, 1894. We had a single image. One of two images on a stereo card, I understand. But now there is a second. We thank Miramar for their basic data about this vessel. Can you add anything? The wreck is covered on site here. About the wreck circumstances perhaps?
1057 (also read 1022) tons
An iron 3 masted sailing ship, which had a very long life indeed. Per 1 (data), 2 (25% down), 3 ('pdf' file with data & an 1879 J. Forster watercolour of the vessel), 4 (data), 5 (modest image available), 6 (New Zealand Shipping), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 210.3 (or 210.2) ft. long, accommodation for 25 in 1st Class & 300 emigrants. Built for The New Zealand Shipping Company Limited ('Company') at cost of £14,000. Maiden voyage to New Zealand ('NZ') in Feb. 1874 with 333 passengers. It would seem that vessel made 19 voyages to NZ (5 lists the destinations). On 2 occasions only did it better 90 days, outbound to NZ. Best trip 78 days, in 1881. Interested to read (3) that the captain on that voyage was Captain John Bone who made 52 voyages to NZ for the Company & retired in 1924. 52 voyages was a record at the time but was later exceeded, apparently. The vessel was sold, in 1892 (or 1893), to J. N. Rodbertus, of Barth, Germany, & renamed Marie. Was reduced to a barque in 1889. In 1906, the vessel grounded & sank, but was refloated. In 1911 (or 1912), the vessel was sold to Crowell & Thurlew Steamship Co., of Boston, Mass., for U.S. $4,850, (link 3 says Revere Co.), renamed Rakaia & used in the Barbados trade. In 1915 (or 1916), the vessel was renamed Ruth Stark. Was reported in a dismasted condition whilst on a voyage from Boston to Secondi (where is that? It may well mean 'Sekondi-Takoradi', Ghana, W. Africa). In 1918, the vessel was sold to Société d’Armements, of Marseilles, France, R. van Hemlryck & Cie, & renamed Monte Carlo. On Jun. 12, 1918, the vessel ran aground & was wrecked at the entrance to Quiberon Bay, France, bound Brest to Nantes. Scrapped & out of register in 1920. Can you tell us more?
1153 (or 1106 or 1139) tons
A fully rigged iron ship. That had a very short life. Per 1 (NY Times, vessel ashore 1875), 2 (wreck data), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 67.3 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 220 ft. 8 in. Built for J. B. Foley, of London. The vessel would seem to have traded from the U.K. to North America. And maybe to India. On Apl. 4, 1875, en route from New York to London, the vessel went aground at Hawk's Ledge, Rocken End, near St. Catherine's Point, on the south coast of the Isle of Wight. The crew left the ship via the boats & safely reached Cowes - quite a distance away since Cowes is directly across the island, on the north side. The ship was, it would seem, a total loss. Coastguards from Castle Haven attended the wreck, but they got stranded in the rigging (how embarrassing!) when their boat broke free. They were seen, in that predicament, by the Brighstone lifeboat which also attended. The wreck slipped into deep water & was bought, I read, by local men for salvage, but they likely were not successful. I have not been able to read any detail - the name of her Captain, her cargo, the time of day, the circumstances. But Michael Bouck-Standen advises (thanks!) that per the London Times, the vessel's cargo included wheat (or maybe it was wheat and flour) & that the Captain, C. J. Cottingham, was held to be at fault at a Board of Trade inquiry held on Apl. 24, 1875 - 'for not casting lead until too late'. The Times indicated the wreck was at 'Rocks End'. Can you add anything? An image?
850 (or 818) tons
A fully rigged 3-masted ship. That also had a very short life. Per 1 (data, Fernglen), 2 (3 images), 3 (extensive data), 4 (an 1875 arrival at Auckland, low on page), 5 (wreck inquiry), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). About 63 metres long. Built for R. B. Porrett, of Thornhill Park, Sunderland, & registered there. The vessel, in its brief life, clearly voyaged to Australia & New Zealand ('NZ'), indeed it made 9 voyages to Auckland, Wellington, Port Chalmers, Nelson & Napier, all NZ. It would seem that the vessel was chartered to New Zealand Shipping Company but was not under charter to them at the time of the 1881 wreck. On Aug. 22, 1881, Fernglen, under the command of Captain Joseph Bubb, left Wellington, NZ, in ballast, for Portland, Oregon. On Oct. 16, 1881, she ran aground at Clatsop Spit, at the mouth of the Columbia River, northern Oregon, U.S.A., a most treacherous place it would seem, with 2,000 or so shipwrecks over the years. Ballast was thrown overboard on Oct. 17, 1881. Wind & sea increased, however, & early on Oct. 18, 1881 she heeled over, masts in the water, & broke her back amidships. The crew of 20 left the ship via the port whaleboat, were picked up by tug Columbia & landed at nearby Astoria, Oregon. The court, in due course, found that the ship was lost due to the default of Captain Bubb, who acted irresponsibly when lacking proper charts & knowledge of the local lights & sirens. Can you add anything?
1157 (or 1156) tons
An iron 3 masted clipper ship, 'carrying skysails and royals over single topgallant sails'. Passenger/cargo. Per 1 & 2 (both data), 3 (page in Finnish with image as Valkyrian), 4 & 5 (J. Spurling watercolour 1927 painting of Waimate), 6 [Waimate voyages to New Zealand ('NZ')], 7 [A 'pdf' history of The New Zealand Shipping Company Limited ('Company')], 8 (Miramar, which does not reference Hindostan, link, you now must be registered to access). 65.9 metres (216 ft. 2 in. or 219 ft. 7 in.) long. Built for British Eastern Shipping Co., of Liverpool, at a cost of £21,500. I have read that in 1875 the vessel was sold to Company & renamed Waimate (but I suspect having read all of the WWW data I can locate, that it was in fact sold to Company & renamed in 1874). In 1875, she was on charter to Shaw Savill & Co. It would seem that the vessel made 22 voyages to New Zealand. Its passage from London to Lyttleton (or Port Lyttleton), NZ, in 1880-81, was considered a record for many years - land to land in 66 days. On its 2nd return voyage from NZ, the vessel was almost wrecked on the rocky coast of Tierra Del Fuego near the Horn. The weather had been bad & the captain (R. Peek) could make no positional sightings for several days. The vessel ran close to cliffs in raging seas. Anchors had been stowed away for the voyage. Cables were run & the anchors were lowered with great difficulty. The vessel was turned with the aid of sails. And the anchors held, she escaped the danger & resumed her voyage. You could, previously at any rate, read the details at a 'ship-modelers.assn.org' page that seems to no longer be available. Which is unfortunate. Sometime during Company ownership 'the fore and mizzen skysails were removed'. In 1887, the vessel was on charter to Albion Line. And in 1896, the vessel was sold to Gustav A. Lindblom, of Turku (or maybe Åbo but Turku looks to be accurate), Finland, (some sites say that the vessel was sold to Russian interests), & renamed Valkyrian. Was reduced to a barque rig c. 1897. On Aug. 9, 1898 (some sites say in 1899), the vessel sailed from Newcastle, NSW, Australia, for Iquique, Chile, with a cargo of coal. The vessel was never heard from again. Can you add anything?
23 HMS Pioneer
A composite 'paddle' gunboat. Per 1 (the 1874 launch of Pioneer), 2 & 3 (Onitsha bombardment of Oct. 1879), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 160 ft. long. Built for the British Navy. Armed with six 20-pounder Armstrong guns, rigged as a fore and aft schooner, launched by Mrs. Coward, the wife of the resident Admiralty overseer. Ray Ranns advises me that Graham Thompson, a curator at The National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, describes the vessel as a 'special service vessel'. Designed for river navigation in the Niger & other African rivers. Used in the bombardment of Onitsha (on the E. bank of the Niger river in S.E. Nigeria) in suppression of a native rebellion there, a rebellion caused, it would seem, by high-handed actions by merchants & resentment against missionaries. Onitsha was, I read, a British trading station since 1857, noted for the export of palm oil. After helping remove goods & equipment from a United Africa Company factory, the bluejackets were attacked & the 'beach & inland towns' were then bombarded for 3 days & devastated. You can read the 1879 circumstances at 3, & also at 2, a link provided by Martin Routledge (thank you!). Re the vessel generally, I was glad to have seen a now long expired eBay listing, a postcard by W. F. Mitchell of Cowes, believed to be of Pioneer under tow by Tyne, en route to the ship breakers in 1888. Can you add anything?
1053 (or 1021) tons
J. C. Pfluger
A 3-masted iron sailing ship. Per 1 (30% down & image), 2 (NZ voyage data), 3 (1874 voyage data), 4 [Waikato (1)], 5 (extensive data, 'White Wings'), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 210.5 ft. long, with accommodation for 320 passengers. Built for The New Zealand Shipping Company at a cost of £14,000. Made 12 voyages carrying emigrants from U.K. to New Zealand ('NZ') during the period from Jul. 1874 to Nov. 1887. The fastest voyage, in 1877, was from Plymouth, U.K., to Port Lyttelton, NZ, in 82 days, 78 days land to land. In Jul. 1888, the vessel was sold to J. C. Pfluger & Co., of Germany & renamed J. C. Pfluger. In 1896, her rig was 'reduced to barque'. In 1900, she was rigged, I read, as a barquentine, (but other words indicate her rig became barquentine only in 1909). Anyway, in 1900 or 1901, she came into the ownership of 'J. D. Spreckels & Bros' (or 'and Son'), of San Francisco, U.S.A., apparently 'in a partly dismasted condition'. At that time, as I read the words, she was renamed Coronado. Later (when?) the vessel was sold to 'Canadian Pacific Coal Co.' for use as a coal carrying barge. On Nov. 20, 1913, (per Miramar) or 1918 (per 'White Wings'), while carrying coal & being towed from Ladysmith (colliery at nearby Nanaimo), Vancouver Island, to Vancouver, she foundered 2 miles from White Rocks, near Sechelt, B.C., Canada. Both Ladysmith & Sechelt are on Georgia Strait, Sechelt being on the mainland. 'The Graphic', in Oct. 1878, published an engraving of vessel in pack ice in Jul. 1878. An engraving of the vessel exists, moored off Gravesend. WWW data is confusing, somewhat repetitive (this listing also!) & scarce. Can you add to and/or correct the above data?
1161 (or 1128 or 1134 or 1145 or 1170) tons
A 3-masted, iron, full rigged sailing ship, later a barque. Passenger/cargo. Per 1 (40% down & modest image), 2 (25 voyages to NZ), 3 (maiden voyage 1874), 4 (modest image), 5 (data), 6 ('pdf' in Norwegian, #10, Agda, later ownership data), 7 ('David Alexander De Maus' image at Port Chalmers), 8 (New Zealand Shipping), 9 (Shaw Savill, no vessel named Waitangi mentioned), 10 (oil painting), 11 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Can anyone clarify if this Waitangi was ever owned or chartered by 'Shaw Savill'? Now see below re Mike Foreman's advice on that matter. 221.6 ft. or 222.0 long, signal letters HVLB. Accommodation for 312/350 passengers, but surely carried more. Built for The New Zealand Shipping Company Ltd. at a cost of £21,500, & registered at London. On Aug. 8, 1874 (or the 1st, data differs), the vessel left Gravesend on its maiden voyage with 400 immigrants & some saloon passengers bound for New Zealand ('NZ'). The weather was not favourable en route & she arrived at Auckland after a passage of 110 days. 11 children died & 6 births during the passage. Made 25 voyages carrying emigrants from U.K. to NZ during the period from Aug. 1874 to Nov. 1898. Not noted as a speedster! The fastest voyage, in 1877, was from Plymouth, U.K., to Port Lyttelton, NZ, in 77 days. Upon arrival at Lyttleton on Oct. 14, 1878, the vessel was quarantined due to scarletina (Scarlet fever). Registry transferred to Lyttelton in 1879, but re-registered at London in 1888. On Sep. 12, 1883, the vessel was in a collision with an unknown vessel off St. Catherine's Point, Isle of Wight, while en route to NZ. Reduced to a barque in 1897. In Feb. or Mar. 1899, the vessel was sold for £3,625 to 'A/S Agda', Jacob Wagle, of Arendal, Norway, & renamed Agda. It would seem, (Norwegian translation most difficult) that the vessel was sold in 1904 to 'Johan Klöcker', & in 1910 to 'Grefstad & Herlofson', both of Arendal. And sold again, in 1912, to 'T. A. Birknes', (have also read 'Knutsen & Birkenes'), of Lillesand, Norway. On Jan. 21, 1913, while en route from Stettin, then Germany now Poland, to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a general cargo, Agda struck the Leman & Ower Bank, off Spurn Head, Humber River, & foundered. 12 lives lost. 3 were rescued by the trawler Recto. Since the above text was written the webmaster was in touch with Mike Foreman whose site seems now to be gone. He kindly advises that Waitangi was sold to 'Shaw Savill & Albion' in about 1889, was then re-named Blenheim, & owned by them for about ten years before being sold to a Norwegian company. Upon now rechecking the links, I see, however, that 9 does list Blenheim, but indicates she previously was Wanganui built 1877 rather than Waitangi. Can you clarify or correct the above data?
26 Scottish Chief
682 (or 537 or 634 or 658) tons
A 3 masted iron barque. Per 1 (image), 2 (three 1881 deserters' names referenced), 3 (probably the ship at Bristol. Image can be viewed in larger size. Miramar lists no vessel of the name built in 1889), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 175.3 ft. long, (about 56 metres long overall, 53.4 metres between perpendiculars), signal letters P.H.J.F. Built for D. Park. Registered at Sunderland. The webmaster has available a few Lloyd's Registers of the applicable period, ex Google Books, but only thru 1889/90 (see left). In the first available such register, that of 1878/79, 'J. H. Reed', has become the owner, previously D. Park. In the 1880/81 edition, thru 1889/90, 'Tomlinson, Hodgett & Co.', of Liverpool, is the registered owner. A puzzle perhaps is that 'R. Davies & others' are stated to be the vessel's owners in an 1883 Inquiry into the stranding of the vessel on Long Sand & subsequently on the Gunfleet, on Dec. 17, 1882. When en route from Hamburg, Germany, to Cardiff, with a cargo that included potatoes. The Master was held to be in default for mistaking the Kentish Knock Light for that of Dunkirk, France. Long Sand, Gunfleet & Kentish Knock seem to be dangerous shoals lying about 32 miles E. of the Essex coast, in the Thames Estuary. The Kentish Knock Light is a lightship. Surely a long way away from Dunkirk. The vessel voyaged to Australia, since 2 refers to (I presume) crew members (Hodgson, Kohn & Rom) who deserted the ship in 1881 at Port Augusta, South Australia. Miramar advises 'reduced to a barge at Genoa (Italy) by 1914'. WWW data is quite limited. Can you add anything?
27 Golden Sunset
542 (or 539) tons
A 3-masted iron barque. Per 1 (Norwegian page, extensive data), 2 (a large 'pdf' with text & images of the vessel's figurehead at page 63), 3 & 4 (re figurehead), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). I am not sure that what follows is accurate since WWW translating Norwegian seems to be most difficult. 159 ft. 5 in. long, signal letters PQML, & later, I read, WBSF & KFNW. The webmaster has a few editions of Lloyd's Register available to him from 'Google' books, but only thru 1889/90 - see left. Built for Henry Beynon & Co. of Newport, Monmouthshire, South Wales. In 1899, the vessel was sold to A. J. T. Goss, also of Newport. And in 1892 was sold to A/S Golden Sunset, L. Gunderson, of Tvedestrand, Norway. In 1896, the vessel was sold again, to P. Rozier of Nantes, France & renamed Le Plessis. It was sold again, in 1909, to A/S Acorn, 'Johan A. Mathisen, Strathelle' of Brevik, Norway, & renamed Acorn. And in 1915 was sold again. to A/S Bark Acorn, Arthur Westergaard & then to A/S Acorn, E. H. Rustad, both of Kristiania, Norway. In 1916, the vessel was sold to 'Skibs A/S-Sørstad', Joh. H. Torstensen (an old eBay item said A. H. Torbjornsen), of Arendal, Norway, & renamed Sørstad. It would seem that the vessel was hit by Joseph H. Moran, a tug, at New York, on Jan. 11, 1918, when at dock, loaded with cement. Sørstad sank, was raised & condemned. And sold presumably as is or as was - in Jun. 1920 to 'H. G. M. Hansen, Brooklyn, Kristiania'. Can anybody explain the meaning of those words? In 1920, the vessel was sold to Havana Coal Co., of Havana, Cuba, where she was dismantled & converted into a coal barge. Which was then scrapped in 1922. This was an earlier similar history of the barque at a now long gone web site. Now there is an interesting further reference - to the ship's 'lady' figurehead, which apparently had been carved by 'Robert Bailes' Carvers' of Hendon, Sunderland. The figurehead was saved from destruction by Edward Hamlin, who brought the figurehead to Marion, Massachusetts, U.S.A., & erected it - in a vertical position - on the seashore there. It became detached during a hurricane in 1944 & floated into the inner harbour at Marion, from which it was recovered, little damaged. It was re-erected on Bates Wharf, Marion, at an angle, i.e. in a position as it would have originally been seen on the vessel's bow. Is it still there today, I wonder? Can you add anything?
235 (or 204) tons
A 3-masted iron barquentine. Per 1 (Bowring, Adamantine, in the lower group of vessels), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Adamantine? A term that is applied to anything that is made of hard material, is unbreakable etc. From a hard mineral, often referred to as adamantine spar. 124 ft. 5 in. long perpendicular to perpendicular, signal letters RBVQ. Built for J. Melmore, (possibly Captain Johnston Melmore), of Maryport, Cumbria. In 1882, the vessel was sold to C. T. Bowring & Company ('Bowring'), of Liverpool, a major international shipping & insurance company, with a lengthy association with Newfoundland. While it early carried cod & seal products to the U.K. & returned with manufactured goods, the company was also noted for the carriage of cargo & passengers between Liverpool, St. John's, Newfoundland, & New York, & for 'New York, Newfoundland & Halifax Steamship Co.', which served the eastern seaboard of North America. The New York Times archives notes an 1884 voyage carrying sugar from Pernambuco, Brazil, to New York, via Hampton Roads. And another that same year ex Aracaju, also Brazil. In 1893, the vessel was deleted from Lloyd's Register. I have not read what happened to her. I have a few editions of Lloyd's Register available from the period, as per the thumbnail at left. Can you add anything?
An iron single screw steamer, schooner rigged. A collier. Per 1 (1881, 90% down), 2 & 3 (both are William L. Wyllie (1853-1923) watercolours), 4 (1913 wreck data, thanks to Chris Lambert), 5 & 6 (1884 collision, Achievement, extensive court reports, starting at p#214 & p#81 respectively), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 200.5 ft. (61.1 metres) long, signal letters Q.N.K.H. Built for 'W. H. Crookes & others', of Sunderland. Soon sold, it would appear, to W. A. Watson ('Watson') - of Sunderland, who are the owners in the 1879/80 Lloyd's Register listing, at left. On Mar. 25, 1884, while en route from Rochester to Sunderland, Dunelm was in collision with Achievement, a 36 ton paddle wheel fishing trawler which was fishing at the time, 7 miles E. of Seaham Harbour. It would seem that both vessels were at fault. In 1889, Dunelm may have been in collision with Calvados, while en route from Le Havre to Rouen, both in France. Watson owned the vessel thru 1889/90, the last Lloyd's register available to the webmaster. After that date? In Jan. 1913, the vessel was en route, in ballast, from Portsmouth to Blyth, to pick up coals, W. H. Whitmore in command, when it ran into a gale entering the harbour at Blyth. A major gale indeed. On the morning of Jan. 11, 1913, Dunelm was driven onto the Sow & Pigs Rocks, at Blyth, Northumberland, by huge seas. Frederick Luter, an able seaman, swam to shore though the seas with a line, & was battered on submerged rocks as he did so. The entire crew of 14 was, in due course, saved thanks to the Blyth Volunteer Life Brigade, & the Cambois lifeboat, under some very grim circumstances you can read at 4, thanks to Chris Lambert, historian of the Tynemouth Volunteer Life Brigade. The ship was wrecked. One of the crew, 2nd mate C. Stroud, died however later that night, as did a volunteer, George Hurrell, who went out in a small boat in the pounding seas to rescue those not dragged ashore by a breeches-buoy apparatus. Several of the other crew members suffered serious illness as a result of their exposure. 3 Royal National Lifeboat Institution medals, in silver, were issued respecting this rescue. Can you add anything?
30 Pendle Hill
234 (or 222) tons
An iron 3 masted schooner, later a barquentine. Per 1 (extensive data), 2 (ref. on New Zealand site), 3 (Captain Evans), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 124.6 ft. long, signal letters R.H.C.M. Built for 'W. Price', of Whitehaven, Cumbria, & registered there. Soon owned by 'W. Price & Co.', of Whitehaven, though I have read that they were later of Liverpool. A sister to Mow Hill. Engaged in the Australia & New Zealand ('NZ') trade & may well be named after Pendle Hill, near Sydney, New South Wales ('NSW'), Australia. Was converted to a barquentine at an unknown date after 1880, which date must have been before 1882 because in that year, William James Evans was her Captain re a voyage from Liverpool to Brisbane via Adelaide & at that time she was a barquentine. After arrival at Brisbane, the vessel, was sold, to 'Burns Philp & Co. Ltd.', of Brisbane, NSW, which company was owned by Robert Philp. In 1888, the vessel was owned at Napier, NZ. Before 1890, it was sold to Hawke's Bay Shipping Co. Ltd., also of Napier. The listings from Lloyd's Registers, available to the webmaster thru 1889/90, are at left. And later owned by W. E. Payne, & J. Carlaw. In 1906, the vessel sailed from Mercury Bay, NZ, to Sydney, NSW, in 26 days. The vessel left Sydney on Mar. 24, 1910 for Wellington, NZ. In the end, but have not read when it was, the vessel was converted to a hulk at Sydney. It may have been in 1910, when owned by 'Sydney Marine Underwriters & Salvage Assn.' 2 refers to 'moored in a backwater of the Kaipara', related perhaps to the hulk. A puzzle because Kaipara seems to be in northern NZ. Can you add anything?
An iron cargo steamship that had a short life indeed. Per 1 (The launch of Ash, ex 'The Marine Engineer' of May 01, 1879), 2 (1882 reference to the missing ship), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 73.3 metres long perpendicular to perpendicular, 240.5 ft. long, single screw, signal letters SMDN. Launched by Mrs. Wilcox on Apl. 8, 1979 (per Miramar on Apl. 05, 1879), for 'Peacock Brothers', maybe 'Peacock Bros. & Sons', merchants, of Sunderland, who proved to be the vessel's sole owner. The webmaster has a couple of editions of 'Lloyd's Register' available to him ex Google books (see left). In Sep. 1881, the vessel left Nagasaki, Japan, for Shanghai, China, with a crew of 32 all told (Miramar states 29). The vessel went missing & was never seen again. The loss is dated at Sep. 25, 1881 - perhaps being the date the vessel left Nagasaki? Can you provide anything additional? #1767
An iron cargo ship. Per 1 (Chevilotte Frères, flag & history), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Built for 'Chevillotte Frères' of Brest, France, & registered France. On May 1, 1885, the vessel foundered under circumstances unknown. David Wendes, kindly advises that the wreck lies in 70 metres of water at 50.13.5N/00.59.5W, i.e. 22 miles SSE of the Isle of Wight. Gildas Le Briquir, of Algeria, advises (thanks Gildas!) that the vessel's holds became flooded for reasons unknown & that 2 lives were lost. Can you provide additional information about this vessel?
2068 (or 1347) tons
An iron cargo ship. Per 1 (1881 launch ref. p.19), 2 (Garbutt), 3 (Garbutt true p.#100), 4 (wreck. p.101), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 275 ft. 4 in. long. Built for D. P. Garbutt, of Hull (& registered there), for the Atlantic & Indian trades. That would seem to likely be David Parkinson Garbutt ('DPG'), a well known (then!) Hull building contractor / property developer, with 'a brother named William who ran a shipbuilding business with him'. In Aug. 1881, under the command of J. Thomson, the vessel was en route from Montreal, Quebec, Canada, to Bristol, U.K., with a general cargo which included cattle & 13 cattlemen as passengers. And a crew of 25. On Aug. 7, 1881, the vessel was wrecked at Cap d'Augene, Saint Pierre & Miquelon Islands (French, Gulf of St. Lawrence, N. of Prince Edward Island), under circumstances unknown to webmaster. No lives were lost. A very short life indeed. She was only launched on Mar. 18, 1881 & presumably was completed later than that. It would seem that DPG later went bankrupt - on Nov. 17, 1883. Can you provide additional information about this vessel?
1642 (or 1600) tons
An iron cargo ship. Per 1 (wreck data), 2 (Delmas Frères, Saintonge), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 259 ft. 4 in. long. Built for 'Delmas Frères', of La Rochelle, France, which company imported coal to France from South Wales. Saintonge is a region & former province of France, in the Gironde river area on the Bay of Biscay. In Mar. 1895, 'L'Hermite' in command, the vessel was en route from Bordeaux, France, to Cardiff, Wales, with a cargo of pit props. Early on Mar. 21, 1895, in dense fog, she ran aground at Lamorna Cove, 5 miles S. of Penzance, Cornwall. At 50.03.0N/05.36.0W. Have seen a ref. also to the date of Mar. 20, 1895. The vessel filled with sea water. I read that since the sea was 'flat calm', the crew of 20 stayed aboard while divers examined the ship's hull - & found it to be badly holed. The owners intended to have the vessel towed to Falmouth but bad weather intervened & the ship was abandoned in early Apl. 1895. No lives were lost. WWW data about this vessel is modest, indeed. Can you provide additional information?
35 G. W. Jones
983 (or 913 or 1045 or 1046) tons
An iron, single screw steamer, schooner rigged. A most interesting but sad end. Per 1 (at page bottom, Czarina). Details slightly different on each of the many sites which provide detail (thank you all): 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (all data), 7 (a long text from a long expired eBay item - I thank the unknown writer!), 8 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 220.3 ft. long perpendicular to perpendicular, (per Lloyd's 1885/86 now located, have read other values), signal letters HWFN. Such Lloyds Register entries as the webmaster earlier had available are at left. Built for 'S.S. G. W. Jones Co. Ltd.', of London, with C. H. Jones & Co. the managers & likely the owners also. By 1887/88, the vessel was owned by 'R. M. Philipps' & later, in 1891 it would seem, the vessel's name was changed to Czarina. Owned (1910?) by Southern Pacific Trading Co. ('SP') & registered at San Francisco, California. Home-ported in New York City before SP re-registered her in San Francisco. The vessel ran aground on Jan. 12, 1910, a total loss, on South Spit, close to shore, at Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon - en route from Marshfield to San Francisco, with a cargo of coal, lumber, & cement. It would seem that though it ran ashore on South Spit, she was driven 1/2 mile north onto North Spit. 24 aboard including one passenger. Under the command of Charles Duggan. Bad weather. Assistance perhaps impossible in storm, but ... the keeper of the Life Saving Station (Boice) was charged with failure to fulfill his duties & with professional unfitness. I read that Nann Smith & the harbour tug Astoria tried to help. 1860 ft. off shore, lifeboats smashed, 5 ft. of water in the engine room. Ship then worth approx. $100,000 & the cargo $20,000. All but one aboard perished. The sole survivor (Harry Kentzel, 1st assistant engineer, over 2 hours in raging seas), died a year later from his injuries. The vessel was re-floated during the night but to no avail. An 'appalling marine tragedy'. Do you have data about the early history of this vessel?
1152 (or 1089) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (data in Norwegian), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 229 ft. 7 in. long, signal letters HFPJ. Such Lloyds Register entries as the webmaster has available are at left. Built for 'J. Blumer & Co.', of Sunderland. Can anybody explain that? One might think that the vessel was built on speculation & a buyer was not at hand when the vessel was finished. But it would seem that 'J. Blumer & Co.' owned the vessel for 13 years, so my initial assumption looks to be incorrect. The vessel was sold, in Jan. 1898, to 'A/S Spurt' ('Spurtco'), of Kristiania (Oslo), Norway (Hj. Siegwarth, the manager), & renamed Spurt. And sold again, in Feb. 1902, to 'N. A. P. Staubo', of Borøen/Tvedestrand, Norway. In May 1903 ownership reverted to Spurtco? In 1908, 'Rederiet flyttet til Sandefjord', perhaps, 'Spurtco home port became 'Sandefjord', (meaning unclear). In 1914, the vessel was sold to 'A/S Malm', of Kristiania (N. A. P. Staubo the manager?). On Feb. 13, 1918, while en route from the River Tyne to Rouen, France, with a cargo of coal, the vessel was wrecked on Whitby Rock, a treacherous reef system near Whitby, Yorkshire, that has claimed many ships. At 54.29.54N/0.37.50E. Need help with this vessel.
A passenger/cargo ship. Per 1, 2 & 3 (wreck data & image), 4 (arrival dates at New York thru Apl. 5, 1895), 5 (NY Times ref. to grounding), 6 (data & image), 7 (Marine Engineer 1887/88, at p.#174), 8 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 76.2 metres (250 ft.) long, speed of 10 knots. Accommodation for 12 passengers in 1st Class & 250 in 3rd. Built for 'Linha de Navegacao de J. H. Andresen' (Andresen Line), of Oporto, Portugal. Was 'gracefully christened', on Jul. 2, 1887, by Mrs. Wm. Blumer. Her maiden voyage, in Aug. 1887, was from Sunderland to Oporto via Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco & New York. Her regular route, commencing Apl. 12, 1890 was on the Oporto, Lisbon, Azores & New York route, and the last such voyage commenced Dec. 15, 1894. Some 1891/1895 passenger lists re arrivals at New York are available via this page (Bettencourt approx 1/2 down page). The Apl. 1895 voyage was San Miguel to New Bedford - & on to New York, it would appear. On Jun. 11, 1895, while en route from New York to Fall River, Massachusetts, (but this site says voyage was Lisbon to New York) vessel ran aground in fog off Goose Hummock, S. side of Fishers Island, New York, (eastern end of Long Island Sound). Capt. J. A. Garosa, was in command. I presume that the vessel could not be saved. A dive site today (29.44.55N/93.36.1W). The NY Times ref. states that vessel was owned by Hagemeyer & Brunn, of New York, but I presume they were the New York agents only. No loss of life. Can you add anything?
A twin-screw steam barge. Per 1 (Marine Engineer 1887/88, at pages 65 & 157), 2 (Miramar, 2nd item, you now must be registered to access). 138 ft. long, 35 ft. wide. Likely intended to be Concrete. But launched as Quiam for 'River Wear Commissioners' of Sunderland. Was christened, on Apl. 9, 1887 by Miss Rhoda Beryl Wake, daughter of H. H. Wake, engineer to the Commissioners. Described by Miramar as a floating crane. A barge built to be able to carry 150 tons of concrete for use in the construction of the deep water foundations of the 'new pier works at Roker'. Equipped with two engines, each to operate independently & hydraulic gear to lower 100 ton bags of concrete. A model of the barge was displayed at the 'Newcastle-upon-Tyne Royal Mining, Engineering and Industrial Exhibition' at Newcastle in 1887. Can you add anything? It would be good to locate an illustration of the vessel.
2128 (or 2111) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (the launch of Hampton on Mar. 09, 1888), 2 (Norwegian page, Borg, #106), 3 (sinking, 'June 1918', Borg), 4 (UB-103), 5 ('u-boat.net', sinking), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 85.0 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 279.0 ft., speed of 9 knots, christened by Miss Buckle, of York. Such Lloyds Register entries as the webmaster has available are at left. Built for 'Commercial Steamship Co. Ltd.' ('Commercial'), of London, 'Young, Ehlers & Co.' the managers. Commercial operated, I am advised, a fleet of colliers from the Tyne to London & to continental ports & later became a tramp ship company - until 1910 when it went into liquidation. In 1901, the vessel was sold to 'Star Shipping Co. Ltd.', of London, with 'Lawson & Co.' the managers - no change of vessel name. In 1903, the vessel was sold to 'Rederi-AB Svanhild' (Carl Schlyter, the manager), of Stockholm, Sweden, & renamed Svanhild. Something happened in 1907 - 'Disp. overtatt av C. O. Altrichter, Stockholm' which seems to mean taken over by C. O. Altrichter, of Stockholm. A change of manager perhaps? In 1910, the vessel was sold to 'Rederi-AB Argus' (E. Olsson, the manager), of Stockholm, Sweden, & renamed Argus. In 1911, the vessel was sold to 'Rederi-AB Borg' (R. Göhle, the manager), of Norrköping, E. Sweden, & renamed Borg. In 1915, the vessel was sold to 'D/S A/S Borg' ('Thv. Halvorsen', the manager), of Bergen, Norway. In early 1915, the vessel was taken over by the U.K. Government (the Shipping Controller, of London) for WW1 service, managed by Cairns, Noble & Co. Ltd., of Newcastle. The vessel was engaged, I am advised, in N. Atlantic crossings to & from Canada. On Jun. 10, 1918, defensively armed, while en route from Bilbao, Spain, to Jarrow, with iron ore, the vessel was torpedoed & sunk by UB-103, Kapitänleutnant Paul Hundius in command, 20 miles SW by S of the Lizard, Cornwall. At 49.37N/5.07W. 24 lives were lost including 'Parsons', its Master. Have not read the circumstances. In convoy? Its cargo? Etc. Can you provide that detail? Am most grateful for the data at 2 (#106), where many dates are, however, recorded differently from those recorded above. I have assumed that Miramar's data would have originated with Lloyd's. Can you add anything?
1468 (or 1457) tons
A cargo ship, which lasted 46 years. Per 1 (image, Sneaton. The correct one? - Niels Had-Andersen (thanks!) believes it is not of the correct vessel. Can anyone identify the funnel markings?), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 76.2 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 250 ft. 0 in., speed of ? knots, signal letters K.V.L.Q. The sole listing from Lloyd's Registers, available to the webmaster thru 1889/90, is at left. Built for 'Robinson Brothers Steamship Company Ltd.', of Whitby. The vessel was sold, in 1899, to 'V. Greibe', possibly related to Dampskibs "Jylland", of Esjberg, Denmark, & renamed Ingrid. The vessel was sold again, in 1909, to 'C. Andresen', likely also of Esjberg, & renamed Nelly. And sold again, in 1922, probably to 'Steamship Company Cecil', or 'Rederi A/B Cecil', of Landskrona, Sweden, 'G. F. Persson' the manager, & renamed Cecil. The vessel was broken up, in Q2 of 1934, at Karlshamn, S. Sweden. WWW data about the vessel is essentially non-existent. I have deduced some of the data above. Can you correct the above as required and/or add anything?
41 B. T. Robinson
1844 (or 1884) tons
An iron steamer. Per 1 (1905 sale, B. T. Robinson), 2 (WW1 sinking '29/8 1916' Antigoon), 3 (Lloyd Royal Belge, Antigoon), 4 (1916 sinking), 5 (U-38, Antigoon), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 275.0 ft. long (83.82 metres) perpendicular to perpendicular, signal letters LCFK. The sole listing from Lloyd's Registers, available to the webmaster thru 1889/90, is at left. Built for 'Robinson Brothers Steamship Company Ltd.', of Whitby. The vessel was sold in 1905, for about £8,500, to 'Antwerpsche Zeevaart Mij', of Antwerp, Belgium (J. D'Haene & Co., managers), & renamed Antigoon. 'SA de Commerce et de Navigation' became the managers in 1912. Became part of 'Lloyd Royal Belge' in 1915. On Aug. 29, 1916, Captain J. Vermeirsch in command, while en route from Cardiff to Genoa, Italy, with a cargo of coal, the vessel was captured, shelled & sunk by submarine U-38, Kapitänleutnant Max Valentiner in command, 30 miles N. of Mallorca (Majorca) in the Mediterranean. But 1 says torpedoed. At or about 40.05N/02.19E, N. of Dragonera Island. No loss of life? Can you help with more data?
1471 (or 1449) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Norwegian page, Pluton, history), 2 ('u-boat.net', Pluton), 3 (sinking, the image is not of this vessel), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 250 ft. long & 76.2 metres perpendicular to perpendicular, signal letters WKHJ. The sole listing from Lloyd's Registers, available to the webmaster thru 1889/90, is at left. The vessel was built for W. Christie & Co., of London & Glasgow, but was delivered to Robinson Bros, of Whitby. In 1896 (or per 4 1895), the vessel was renamed Leonardos, when sold to 'A. L. Vatis' (became 'A. L. Vatis & Co.' in 1899) of the island of Syra, Cyclades, Greece. In 1908, the vessel became the property of the Bank of Athens, also of Syra, [P. Diamantopulos the manager (not the bank manager!)]. The manager became P. T. Sachtouris in 1913. In May 1915, the vessel became owned by 'A/S D/S Pluton' (Louis Hannevig), of Kristiania (Oslo), Norway, & renamed Pluton. A replacement of an earlier Pluton, which was mined in 1914. Later that year, in Nov. 1915, the vessel became the property of Hannevig Bros., also of Kristiania. In Sep. 1916, the vessel was sold to 'A/S Sørlandske Lloyd' (Karl A. Thorbjørnsen), again of Kristiania. On Sep. 9, 1917, while en route from Port Talbot, Wales, to Rouen, France, with a cargo of coal (3 says 'patent fuel', a coal related product), the vessel was torpedoed by submarine UB-31, Oberleutnant zur See Thomas Bieber in command, 6 miles ESE of Start Point, Devon, & sunk. At 50.10.6N/03.30.1W. 10 lives were lost. Freddie Tones, who has dived the wreck, says the cargo indeed was blocks of patent fuel. It would seem that there were 6 vessels named Garnet in the period of 1880 thru 1891. Can you add anything?
1578 (or 1598) tons
Carmela (or Carmella)
An iron cargo ship. Per 1 (history data, Paliki), 2 (history data, Palika, I think means Paliki), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 73.1 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 249 ft. 3 in., speed? The sole listing from Lloyd's Registers, available to the webmaster thru 1889/90, is at left. Built for P. G. Cicellis, of Marseilles, France, but Greek registered. The name Paliki? A peninsular on the island of Kefalonia, an Ionian island, Western Greece, possibly the home of Odysseus, (Homer's 'Odyssey'). In 1900, the vessel was acquired by Francis H. (Hector) Clergue, entrepreneur extraordinary, of Algoma Central Railway Company ('Algoma') & in 1901 was brought to the Great Lakes. Part of a business empire to develop & exploit Helen Mine, N. of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, & its high grade (hematite) iron ore, which ultimately became Algoma Steel Corporation. Algoma, of Sault Ste. Marie, owned its own steamships & served Sandusky, Toledo, Georgian Bay & Lake Superior. Carrying iron ore, coal, limestone, grain & steel product as the company & the market required. It would seem, however, that the vessel left the Great Lakes in winter, & likely carried steel on its journeys to serve in Europe. A 'Google' snippet advises that the vessel ran aground when carrying steel rails bound for Chicago, on Simmons Reef near the Straits of Mackinac on Apl. 19, 1915. The vessel was sold (when?) to Hall Corporation, of Montreal, left the Great Lakes, & saw war service (presumably WW1) in the White Sea of NW Russia. Have also seen a ref. to the vessel being owned, in 1916, by F. E. Hall & Co., of Liverpool, who, if that was so, soon sold it. Perhaps to C. A. Stewart & Co. ('Stewart'), of London. Since on Aug. 5, 1918, the vessel, then owned by Stewart, was in collision with Tuna, (of Leith, owned by Chr. Salvesen & Co.), near Methil Roads, Firth of Forth, Scotland. Paliki was damaged in the collision & a lawsuit resulted. The vessel must have later returned to Canada because it linked Montreal, Quebec to Newfoundland, from 1924. The above was assembled with some difficulty from modest & often conflicting 'Google' book 'snippets', so easy to misinterpret. While the above would seem to be accurate, I have also read that Algoma owned Paliki all the way thru from 1900 to 1924. In 1926, the vessel was renamed Carmella, (though 3 & other references say Carmela & 4 used to say that it became Carmella in 1916 - a date surely in error) when sold to S. Comis, of Italy. In the 1st quarter of 1930, the vessel was broken up (where I wonder?). There would appear to be many published references to Paliki, but none are WWW available. So the above may well need significant correction. If you can correct the above text or add anything, an image maybe, I would be most happy to hear from you.
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Bailey & Leetham, Ronda), 2 (Wilson Line, Ronda), 3 & 4 (Ronda at Burra Sound), 5 (location of Ronda wreck in a map ex 6), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). The sole listing, available to the webmaster, from Lloyd's Registers is at left. 274.0 ft. long, 83.5 metres perpendicular to perpendicular, speed?, clipper bowed, signal letters LHWV. Built for Hine Brothers, ('Holme Line'), of Maryport, Cumberland. The vessel was named, at its launch on Aug. 13, 1889, by Mrs. Bailey, wife of the Rev. H. C. Bailey. The vessel would seem to have been given two ON numbers, 89479 & 96479, which is a puzzle. I have seen a couple of data 'snippets' re its early service. On Sep. 28, 1892, Captain Brown in command, the vessel left Newfoundland for London with a cargo of pine lumber & deals. And on Apl. 26, 1898, the vessel arrived at Montreal, Quebec, Canada with a cargo of coal. Does anybody know if 'Rydal SS Co.', maybe Rydal Steamship Company, of Newcastle, was related to Hine Brothers? Perhaps a single ship company that they set up to own the vessel? It would seem that 'Rydal SS Co.', in 1902, sold the vessel to 'Bailey & Leetham', of Hull, who renamed it Ronda. A year later, in 1903, the Bailey & Leetham fleet was taken over by 'Thos. Wilson, Sons & Co.', i.e. Wilson Line, of Hull. The vessel name was not changed. In 1915 the vessel was sold to the Admiralty, and, on Aug. 20, 1915, the vessel was scuttled, in 10 to 15 metres of water, as a 'block ship' in Burra Sound, Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands. Scapa Flow was, I learn, used in both world wars as a major harbour for the British Navy. To safeguard the fleet as they lay at anchor, the main entrances into the Flow were restricted & block ships were used to cut off access though the minor entrances. Ronda was the most northerly of seven such sinkings in Burra Sound, which sound forms a narrow gap between Hoy Skerries & the island of Graemsay. The wreck is at one or other of two locations - either at 58.927288N/3.313638W or at 58.55.6667N/ 3.18.725W it would appear. The wreck was blown up & dispersed to clear the channel in 1962. WWW data is scarce. Can you add anything? #1731
A cargo ship. Per 1 (sea trials in Dec. 1889), 2 (Mersey Steamship), 3 (Apl. 5, 1905 mortgagee's sale), 4 & 5 (1915 sinking Inquiry), 6 (1915 Inquiry re the Malay crew), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). The sole Lloyd's Register listing available to the webmaster, re 1889/90, is at left. 242 ft. 5 in. (73.9 metres) long perpendicular to perpendicular, 2 masts, speed of 12 knots, fitted out for 30 first class passengers (or maybe 18 only), signal letters LNDG. I am advised, however, that the vessel also carried 800 3rd class passengers. 'Zweena' - a word of Arabic origin meaning 'beautiful'. Built for Mersey Steamship Company Limited, of Liverpool, (Leech, Harrison & Forwood, the managers). The vessel was initially registered at Liverpool, but had many later owners. On Jul. 30, 1895 it was registered at Singapore, owned by Thomas Scott of London. A day later, on Jul. 31, 1895, the vessel was sold to T. C. Bogaardt, Managing Director of Straits Steamship Co. Ltd. ('Straits'), of Singapore. On Mar. 16, 1898 the vessel was sold again, to 'The Tan Kim Tian Steamship Co. Ltd.' ('TanKimTian')', of Singapore, which company was then 50% owned by Straits. On Jan. 6, 1904, TanKimTian became owned by Tan Kiam Tian's three sons - Tan Hup Seng, Tan Hup Leong, Tan Hup Swee - & the ship was mortgaged to Oei Tiong Ham ('OeiTiongHam'), of Semarang, Java, Netherlands East Indies. The vessel was chartered to Siang Teck & Co., of Rangoon, with 6 weeks notice of termination when, on Apl. 5, 1905, the vessel was sold at a mortgagee's auction sale, likely at Singapore. I am advised that on Apl. 13, 1905, presumably as a result of that auction, OeiTiongHam sold the vessel to Chew Joon Hiang ('ChewJoonHiang'), Managing Partner of 'Heap Eng Moh & Co.' or maybe 'Heap Eng Moh Steamship Company Ltd.' (collectively 'HeapEng'), of Singapore. After the vessel being mortgaged, a couple of times, to OeiTiongHam, the vessel reverted to ChewJoonHiang, who sold it, on Dec. 19, 1912 to HeapEng. HeapEng 'had been established in 1912 by Oei Tiong Ham ('Oei') whose firm Kian Gwan had interests throughout the region'. (The region would seem to have covered Java, Rangoon, Singapore & China). Oei was known locally as the Java Sugar King but was far more diverse than the title suggests. He operated five ships which all sailed under the Red Ensign, one of which was Zweena. A majority of HeapEng was apparently owned by the Dutch company 'Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij' (KPM). On May 12, 1915, the vessel left Singapore on what proved to be her final voyage. On Jun. 8, 1915, while en route from Pare Pare, Sulawesi, Bali, to Surabaya, all Indonesia, with a general cargo & many (how many?) passengers, Zweena was wrecked in the Madoera Straits, known today, it would seem, as Madura Straits, East Java. The ship ran onto Siroempa Rock, a rock not buoyed or marked in any way, just after daybreak, at the eastern end of the Straits. Located at 7.25S/113.04E. The ship was not fast on the rock & making water rapidly it tried to make its way to shallow water, & soon foundered. Three boats got away, but when the vessel went down there were a total of 25 still left aboard. The survivors were rescued by Vos, a Dutch torpedo boat destroyer, which was close to the scene when the vessel struck. Three officers, 2 crewmen & 11 passengers (including 5 women) ended up losing their lives. An Inquiry was held at Singapore into the sinking & the certificate of Captain Walter D. (Douglas) McCraith was suspended for 3 months, though he was granted a First Mate's certificate during that period. E. Jones, the Chief Officer, was commended for his bravery in the saving of many lives. An unfortunate note - Ali bin Ahmad, the serang (a boatswain), was imprisoned (described as rigorous) for 9 months for his leadership role in the actions of 11 Malay deck crew, who lowered a boat & boarded first & were accused of both cowardice & refusing to obey orders. E. Jones stated at the Inquiry that but for that matter, no lives would have been lost - the ship's boats had to be lowered by passengers & by Chinese crew, a job for which none of them were skilled. The 11 crewmen each received 3-4 months imprisonment. The vessel was deregistered on Jun. 17, 1915. A giant portion of the above is from data provided by Harold Cartwright - thanks so much Harold! Can you add anything? An image perhaps?
1562 (or 1382) tons
An iron steamer. Per 1 (extensive page in Swedish, with 3 images & 2 docs.), 2 (1 Google translated), 3 & 4 (images, Gustaf Wasa), 5 (1931 collision, 75% down, THE "GUSTAF WASA"), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 76.2 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 250 ft., initially had bowsprits. Built for 'Steamship Camperdown Co. Ltd.', of London, 'Pinkneys Clare & Nye', also of London, the managers. Modest following ownership changes - became 'Nye, Clare & Son' & then 'E. Nye'. The vessel was sold, in 1896, to 'Russell Huskie & Co.', of Leith, Scotland, & renamed Craigallan. It was sold again, in 1898, to 'Ångf. AB Björneborg', of Pori, W. coast of Finland, ('Oscar Heine' the manager perhaps), & renamed Ainamo. And soon sold again, in 1899, to 'D/S Vulcan', of Denmark, 'C. P. Jensen' the initial manager, 2 following manager changes), & renamed London. In Dec. 1915, the vessel was sold to 'D/S Pacific' (L. R. Schmith, the manager), of Copenhagen. Used on N. Atlantic crossings. It was sold for the last time in 1924, when it was sold to 'Rederi A/B Gustaf Wasa', of Kalmar, Sweden, & renamed Gustaf Wasa. Served as a tramp ship. For reasons I cannot understand, related to her peculiar stem, was known as 'Snabelcreutz'. In May 1931, a vessel of the name would seem to have collided with Homefire, (an 'S. P. Austin' built vessel), off Regent's Canal Dock entrance, River Thames. Vessels equally at fault. There were 2 vessels of the name however, in 1931, the other being built in 1895. So was it this Gustaf Wasa? On Feb. 10, 1936, the vessel left Hartlepool for Norrköping, E. Sweden, with a cargo of coal. On Feb. 26, 1936, the vessel went ashore, at Arkobaden (or Arkobadan), Arkösund Skerries, & sank. At 58.28.4N/17.13.0E, near Norrköping. Magnetic interference a factor perhaps? Possibly also fog & snow? Efforts to save the ship were made by Martina Lundgren, Hermes & Diana. But fog & heavy seas made such activities impossible & when Hermes returned on Mar. 3, 1936, the vessel had sunk & was no longer visible. It would appear that the wreck is still there today, largely intact. No loss of life it would seem. Am grateful for the data at 1. Can you correct the above text as may be required and/or provide more data?
A steel steamer. Per 1 (launch of vessel), 2 & 3 (U.S. lawsuit), 4 (aground in 1894), 5 (Bailey & Leetham, Genoa), 6 (Wilson Line, Genoa), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 84.3 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 270 ft., speed of 9 1/2 knots. Launched on Feb. 08, 1890 & christened by Miss Robson, of Roker. Modest crew sickness in 1892. Built on speculation, it would seem, since Miramar refer to J. Blumer & Co. being the owner, as it was indeed, in Feb/Mar 1893, when it was chartered to the 'New York & Porto Rico Steamship Company' & the subject of a lawsuit for damage to hogsheads of molasses & sugar delivered at New York ex Puerto Rico. On Aug. 29, 1894, Captain Maulden in command, the vessel, en route from Veracruz, Mexico, to New York via Laguna (where is it?) with a cargo of broom-root & marble, went aground at Anegada Adentos reef, off Veracruz. It was floated off with no damage to ship or cargo. The vessel must have been sold or transferred to 'Falstone Steam Shipping Company Limited', of Sunderland, which company was wound up in Oct. 1900, & sold the vessel in 1900 to 'Bailey & Leetham' ('B&L'), of Hull, who renamed it Genoa. In 1903, Wilson Line, of Hull, took over the B&L fleet including Genoa. On Jan. 15/16, 1912, while en route from Blyth to Riga, Latvia, with a cargo of coal, the vessel went missing - it foundered near Holy Island, Northumberland. 22 lives were lost. Can you help with more data?
1854 (or 1851) tons
An iron steamer. Per 1 (launch), 2 (WW1, Fredrika), 3 (Clara, data in Swedish, image), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 270 ft. long. Built for Robinson Brothers, of Whitby. Link 3 states that Hernodia, of Härnösand, was the ship's owner at an unknown date. The vessel was sold, in 1916, to 'J. Mannerheim', possibly of Kramfors, Sweden, & renamed Fredrika (link 3 states Frederica). On Jul. 12, 1917, while en route from Uddevalla, Sweden, to Hull with a cargo of timber, the vessel was hit by a torpedo & sunk at 59.16N/0.46W, 9 miles E. of Auskerry in the Orkney's. No loss of life. Can you help with more data?
49 J. W. Burmester
1278 (or 1293) tons
(Hull 39 was built in 1875. There must re a reason for the 'strange' hull number. In 1891 the Blumer Hull #s were over 100.)
Fredrikssten (or Fredriksten)
What was it? 'Stålbark' in Norwegian. A 3-masted steel barque, it would seem. Per 1 (Norwegian 'Word' file, #9, also 2), 3 ('wrecksite.eu', wreck data, Fredriksten, & 4 (Lloyd's Register data, Fredriksten), 5 (extensive data, Syvstjerne, including data in English), 6 (Burmester fleet data. But vessel not there listed), 7 (Burmester fleet flag, at page bottom), 8 (company history, Burmester), 9 (image, J. W. Burmester, ex State Library of Victoria, Australia, (10), but cannot link to it), 11 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 255.8 ft. long. Built as J. W. Burmester for 'Hermann Burmester' ('Burmester') of Hamburg, Germany. 'Burmester' is clearly the port wine producer of Oporto, Portugal, whose fleet was based in Hamburg. The long established (late 1700s) firm was taken over, in 1834, by Johann Wilhelm Burmester. The barque visited Melbourne, Australia, in 1904 at least. In 1908, the vessel was taken over by Julius Wilhelm Gerhard Burmester, also of Hamburg. In May 1910, the vessel was sold to Niels A. Stang Jr., (maybe Nils) of Fredrikshald, Norway, & renamed Corona & then transferred to 'A/S Fredrikssten' (owned by Niels A. Stang Jr.) & renamed Fredrikssten. In Apl. 1915, the vessel was sold to 'Skibs-A/S Stjernen' (Herman Jacobsen & Co. the managers?), of Sarpsborg, Norway, & renamed Syvstjerne. In Oct. 1916, the vessel was sold, for NOK 600.000, to 'A/S Fredrikssten' (Aug. F. Christensen the managers?), of Kristiania (Oslo), Norway. In Dec. 1916, the vessel was renamed Fredrikssten, or, per Miramar, Fredricksten. On Jan. 4, 1917, the vessel left Savannah, Georgia, with a cargo of 2,000 tons of 'oljekaker' (which seems to mean oil cake), Karl Madsen in command, bound for Svendborg, Denmark, & was never seen again. 16 lives were lost. Translating Norwegian is most difficult. Note also that the data at 1 does not refer to Corona. Can you correct the above and/or add anything?
1227 (or 1198) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (an informative 'u-boat.net' page, Gun), 2 ('wrecksite.eu', Gun), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 72.0 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 237.2 ft. Built for 'Rederi A/B Condor' (B. A. F. Georgii the manager), of Stockholm, Sweden. In 1906, the vessel was sold to C. V. Akerson, likely also of Sweden, & renamed Gevalia. And later, at a date unstated, it was sold to 'Rederi-A/B Regulus' (J. H. Pettersson), of Helsingborg. But not apparently then renamed. In 1937, the vessel was sold to 'Rederi-A/B Vinga' of Gothenburg (Knut Bergqvist the manager), & renamed Gun. On Sep. 30, 1939, under the command of Capt. John Mauritz Persson, while en route from Gothenburg, Sweden, to Antwerp, Belgium, with a general cargo that included 56 tons of ammunition, the vessel was sunk by a torpedo fired by U-3, 30 miles NW of Hantsholm, Skagerak, Denmark. No lives were lost. The vessel was neutral. But was stopped by U-3, at 21:08 on Sep. 30, 1939, explosive charges to scuttle her were placed aboard & the seacocks opened. Per 2, the Captain (Bengt Bergh's grandfather) & 2 sailors were taken aboard U-3. 8 plus hours later, at 05:30 on Oct. 1, 1939, when Gun had not sunk, the vessel was sunk by a single torpedo. Before that, however, the 3 captives were released & the Gun crew were permitted to take to the boats, to be, a few hours later, taken aboard Dagmar, a Danish steamer. 2 advises however, that an English submarine & aircraft were aware of U-3 but did not try to sink her in view of the 3 Swedish seamen held captive aboard. And that U-3 then lay on the sea floor for 8 hours before surfacing to fire the torpedo/ torpedoes. Can you correct the above and/or add anything?
2526 (or 2514) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (the 1891 launch of Sydmonton), 2 (wreck data, images), 3 (wreck data & gun), 4 & 5 (UB-121), 6 (UB-21), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 290.1 ft. (about 93 metres) long between perpendiculars. Built for Robinson Brothers, of Whitby & Christened by Mrs B. T. Robinson. In 1912, the vessel was sold to 'G. A. Issaias & C. E. Zalocostas', of Piraeus, Greece, & renamed Constantinos Samaras. It was sold again, in 1915, to 'Mitchell Cotts and Co. Ltd.' ('C. K. George & Co.', the managers?), & renamed Oushla. On Nov. 6, 1916, while en route from London to Liverpool, the vessel was wrecked under the chalk cliffs at Birling Gap, Eastbourne, East Sussex. Near Beachy Head. I have not read the circumstances nor if there was any loss of life. Now it would seem that some years later, on Apl. 15, 1919, a German submarine was being towed down the English Channel, maybe on its way to ship breakers. It broke its tow & ended up wrecked alongside the Oushla. I read (ex a 'snippet' reference to The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 56) that her bow actually jammed into the steamer's boiler room before the next tide withdrew her and laid her alongside. I read also that salvage work was carried out on both vessels in the late 1920s & early 1930s, 'with the metals winched up over the cliff'. More salvage work was carried out in the 1970s by 'Metlec' of Newhaven, East Sussex. Which specific submarine was it? It is said to have been UB-121, however authoritative sources state that UB-121 was 'expended in explosive trials in France' (Toulon) & broken up in 1921. Recent references suggest that it was probably UB-21, which surrendered on Nov. 24, 1918. WWW data is limited. Some remains of Oushla are still there today, visible only at low spring tides, including it would seem (link 2) a ship's boiler. What is it about boilers? They seem to survive where the rest of a ship just vanishes. Can you correct the above and/or add anything?
52 Charles Racine
1635 (or 1528 or 1524) tons
An iron barque. Which occasionally took passengers. Per 1 (1896 storm), 2 (page in Norwegian, image), 3 (link 2 translated), 4 ('pdf' Norwegian, #29), 5 (79 days, ref. Mar. 3, 1898, nr. page bottom), 6 (image), 7 & 8 (modest images), 9 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 76.3 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular (250 ft. 2 in.). Had no changes in name. Built for Sigval Bergesen, established 1887, of Stavanger, Norway. The vessel was transferred, in 1893, to 'Bark Charles Racine A/S', with S. Bergesen the manager. In May 1893, the vessel encountered enormous icebergs, 1000 ft. high, at 50S/52W, NW of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. And also similar ice a year later in the same general area. On Sep. 7, 1896, the loaded vessel left New York for Sydney, Australia, but encountered a major storm 2 days out & had to return to New York to effect repairs. She suffered major damage. Her steering gear & wheel were carried away, she lost fore & main lower topsails, foresail, 3 jibs, staysails, 2 lifeboats & suffered other damage. She returned, with a list, after temporary repairs were effected at sea. On Mar. 3, 1898, the vessel arrived at Port Chalmers, Dunedin, New Zealand, 79 days out of New York. On Jun. 6, 1910, the vessel left Boston with a cargo of timber & a crew of 35 & arrived at the River Plate on Aug. 4, 1910. Aboard was future playright Eugene O'Neill, either as an ordinary seaman (his words) or maybe as 'a quasi passenger who had light work duties aboard ship'. On Nov. 11, 1910, the vessel, under the command of Captain Gustav Waage, 'known for setting speed records with his sailing ships, arrived at Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Canada, from Buenos Aires, to load lumber for Montevideo. Then the largest ship to have entered the LaHave river at Bridgewater. In Jun. 1916, the vessel was sold to 'Harald Henriksen', of Kristiania (Oslo). But was soon resold, in Sep. 1916, to 'Østlandske Rederi A/S', J. W. Johannessen the manager, also of Kristiania. In Jun. 1921, while en route, in ballast, from Durban, South Africa, (left Jun. 16) to the St. Lawrence River, Canada, the vessel was badly damaged under circumstances I have not read. The vessel made it back to Durban, in Jul. 1921, perhaps, but was so damaged it was condemned. In 1923, the vessel was sold for use as a storage vessel at Lorenco Marques, Mozambique. And was hit by Malda when described as a 'quarantine hulk' moored off Beira. It would seem that the remains of the vessel lay for years on the sands at Beira, Mozambique (per Sea Breezes 1961 with image). Suffered a fire in the cabin, before 1918, but when? The webmaster has no ability in Norwegian, the source of much of the above. Is the text correct therefore? Can you correct and/or add anything?
53 Chicago City
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Bristol City Line, Chicago City), 2 ('uboat.net', 1917 torpedoed), 3 (#12), 4 (image, Chicago City), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). The vessel was built for 'Bristol City Line of Steamships Limited' (Bristol City Line), (Chas. Hill & Sons, both owners & managers) of Bristol. Which company provided service to New York City from Avonmouth, in Bristol. 89.9 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 295 ft., speed of 9 1/2 knots. Sister to Boston City & Kansas City. The launch was referenced in the Feb. 1, 1893 edition of 'Marine Engineer & Naval Architect' - but the available data snippet is modest of size indeed! On May 24, 1917, or maybe late on May 23, 1917, while en route from New York to Bristol with a general cargo, the ship was torpedoed by UC-62, Oberleutnant zur See Max Schmitz in command, when off Kinsale, SW Ireland. At 51.36N/08.12W. Two lives were lost but the ship, though damaged, survived the encounter. She clearly was repaired, (where I wonder?), & returned to service. Can you tell us about the circumstances? No further word about her until 1929, when, on Oct. 15, 1929, the vessel arrived at Port Glasgow, to be broken up. Can you add anything to the above? And/or provide new data?
54 Wiscombe Park
A 3-masted, steel, fully rigged ship. Interesting story. Per 1 (Grief), 2 (90% down), 3 (painting & data), 4, 5 & 6 (all 3 are images), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Painted by artists Herbert B. J. Everett (known as John Everett) & Reginald A. Bostel. The vessel was built for Wiscombe Park Co. Ltd. (G. Windram & Co. managers), of Liverpool. 281 ft. (about 90 metres) long. Have seen referred to as a 'limejuicer', slang for a British sailor. The vessel was sold, in 1911, to Chadwick Wainwright and Co., of Liverpool. And sold again, in 1919, to Bureau Freres & Baillegeau, of Nantes, France & renamed Edouard Bureau. It lay idle for a while. In 1923, the vessel was sold to Vinnen Gedbruder, of Hamburg, fitted out as a sail training ship & renamed Greif. Data about that name is contradictory. 'Miramar' states Greif, while the other sites state Grief. Greif seems to be the correct name, per Basil Lubbock in 'The Last of the Windjammers'. In 1927, the vessel was battered rounding Cape Horn en route from Port Pirie, S. Australia, to England, with a cargo of wheat. On Jun. 7, 1927, the vessel arrived at Falmouth but was ordered to Belfast to discharge its cargo. The vessel grounded on Twin Rocks, Irish Sea, but was towed clear. The cargo was unloaded at Belfast. The cost to repair the vessel being too high, the vessel was sold to Irish ship breakers for £2,500 & it was scrapped in Q3 of 1927. Can you confirm the vessel's last name and/or provide new data?
55 Boston City
2346 (or 2345 or 2589) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (the 1893 launch of Boston City), 2 (#13), 3 & 4 (NY Times archives, both page bottom), 5 (data), 6 (Berwind), 7 (August 3, 1918, Berwind), 8 (data), 9 (wreck map & text 70% down), 10 (UB-88), 11 (U.S. Naval Historical page, Berwind), 12 (Bristol City Line), 13 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 288 ft. long perpendicular to perpendicular, 306 ft. overall. Christened by Miss Alice Weiss, daughter of the initial commander. Built for 'The Bristol City Line of Steamships Limited' (Bristol City Line), (Chas. Hill & Sons, both owners & managers) of Bristol. Sister to Chicago City & Kansas City. It would seem that on Jan. 31, 1904 the vessel was in collision with Colorado 'near the Southwest Spit in the lower bay' (presumably near New York City) & sank. But was raised on Jul. 9, 1904, towed up the bay & beached off Staten Island, New York. The vessel was sold, in 1905, to J. E. Berwind & renamed Berwind. The vessel carried sugar between Puerto Rico & New York. In Sep. 1917, the vessel was requisitioned by the U.S. Shipping Board & sent to support the American Army in France. On Aug. 3, 1918, while in convoy & en route from Rochefort to Brest, both France, the vessel was torpedoed by German submarine UB-88 & sank off Ushant. 6 lives were lost. At 47.57N/4.43W. At that time, would seem to have been owned by 'New York & Porto Rico Steamship Co.' Do I have it all correctly? Can you add anything?
56 Kansas City
A cargo ship. Per 1 & 2 (both Bristol City Line), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 306 ft. long overall, 89.9 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular. Built for 'The Bristol City Line of Steamships Limited' (Bristol City Line), (Chas. Hill & Sons, both owners & managers) of Bristol. Which company provided service to New York City from Avonmouth, in Bristol. Sister to Chicago City & Boston City. On Aug. 30, 1917, the vessel left New York for Bristol. It was last sighted, I read, on Sep. 5, 1917, but was never seen again. About 30 lives were lost. I have not read which ship sighted her on Sep. 5, 1917. Or where she was sighted. It is possible that the ship foundered in a storm, or maybe hit a mine or was hit by a German U-boat. There is very little data WWW available about this vessel. There is, however, this launch 'snippet' from the 1894 edition of 'The Marine Engineer and Naval Architect'. Am sorry that I am unable to provide a bigger image! Can you add anything?
57 Duchess of York
A cargo ship. Per 1 (launch), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 91.4 metres (300 ft.) long, perpendicular to perpendicular, speed probably modest - 9 or 10 knots perhaps. Built for Robinson Bros., of Whitby. The vessel was sold, in 1909, to Edward Nicholl & Co., ('Hall Line'), the vessel's owner & manager, of Cardiff, Wales, & renamed Cardiff Hall. The principal of Edward Nicholl & Co., i.e. Edward Nicholl (1862/1939) later became Sir Edward Nicholl. On Mar. 19, 1911, while en route from Novorossiysk (southern Russia, the main Russian port on the Black Sea), to Antwerp, Belgium, with a cargo of grain, the vessel was wrecked at Miskhak Point, near the entrance to Novorossiysk Bay. Any loss of life? I have not read the circumstances. There was however, it would seem, an official inquiry into the loss which would tell us & it would seem also, (not sure of its significance or if it was even unusual), that the vessel was over-insured. Not much data is WWW available. Is it possible that you have the 1912 inquiry report, or could otherwise add to this record?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (launch), 2 (text & modest image), 3 [Wilhelmsen, Tyr (1)], 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 284.8 ft. long, speed of 10 knots. The vessel was built for Wilh. Wilhelmsen, of Tønsberg, Norway. And was sold, in Sep. 1921, to Emil R. Retzlaff, of Szczecin (Stettin), then Germany now Poland & renamed Wotan. The vessel was sold again, in Jun. 1931, to "Sedina" Schiffahrts-G.m.b.H., of Germany. And in 1934, was sold to M. Stern A. G., of Essen, Germany, to be scrapped. And scrapped in Q3 of 1934. Can you add anything?
59 Joseph Holland
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Hannibal text, many images & links to other data & related images), 2 (text), 3 & 4 (data), 5 (in Chesapeake Bay), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 80.5 metres (274 ft. 1 in.) long, speed of 9 (or 11) knots. Displacement 4000 tons. Built for 'Francis Stanley Holland', of London. The vessel was sold, on Apl. 16, 1898, for $147,941, to the U.S. Navy, renamed Hannibal, & commissioned on Jun. 7, 1898. Based in New England, she carried coal along the Atlantic coast during the Spanish-American War. I read that Hannibal, along with 3 other U.S. ships bombarded the Spanish positions at the Battle of Fajardo. The ship was awarded The Spanish Campaign Medal & her officers & men were issued the Spanish Campaign badge for 1898 service. And continued in a similar role, i.e. carrying coal, (overhauled in 1908), until 1911. The vessel was de-commissioned on Aug. 15, 1911, but re-commissioned on Oct. 16, 1911. Assigned to the U.S. Survey Squadron to make depth soundings & surveys in preparation for the opening of the Panama Canal. The vessel continued to serve in the Caribbean (Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, & Cuba) until 1917 - hydrographic surveys etc. When the U.S. entered WW1, in Apl. 1917, the ship was attached to the Atlantic Fleet's Patrol Force, assisting submarine chasers & other ships en route to the European war zone. Complement of 244. Armed with one 4" gun, two 3" guns, & eight .50-cal. machine guns. Was overhauled in 1918. Later that year, the vessel became a tender to submarine chasers at Plymouth, England. Escorted sub chasers back to the Western Hemisphere, by way of the Azores. In Aug. 1919, the vessel returned to the U.S. & was laid up at Philadelphia. In Jul. 1920, the vessel was classified a 'miscellaneous auxiliary', with hull number AG-1. Was re-commissioned on Feb. 9, 1921, returned to the Caribbean, & resumed survey operations in the area until WW2. Employed on the Chesapeake Bay degaussing range during WW2. The vessel was de-commissioned on Aug. 20, 1944. On Mar. 1, 1945, she was used as an aircraft bombing target & sunk in Chesapeake Bay - an undignified end to a very long life! It served as such for 21 years, & in 1966 her target role was taken over by American Mariner. The vessel lies 7 miles E. of Pt. Lookout in Central Chesapeake Bay (at 38.02.439N/76.09.208W). Anything you can add? Corrections?
2119 (or 2160) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 290 ft. (about 93 metres) long, speed of 11 knots (or maybe 8 knots only). Built for North Moor Steamships Ltd., of London, (W. Runciman & Co. of Newcastle, the managers). The vessel was registered at Cardiff in 1904/5, but was sold in 1904 to 'Elvidge & Morgan', of Cardiff, (who likely were the agents rather than the owners), & renamed Druidstone. Possibly 'Scarisbrick Steamship Co. Ltd.' were the new owners? The vessel was sold, in 1914, to H. W. Christophersen, of Flensburg, Germany, & renamed Helene. On May 22, 1940, the vessel hit a mine at 'Hubert Gat', Ems (Ems is a river at the border of northwestern Germany & the Netherlands. Can you correct the above or add anything?
A cargo ship, a collier. Per 1 (extensive data re 1913 wreck, links), 2 (also data re 1913 wreck), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 235 ft. (about 75 metres) long. Built for Steam Colliers Ltd., of Newcastle, (H. C. Pelly & Co., the managers). Later owned by William France, Fenwick & Co. Ltd., of London, (who owned 3 vessels of the name) & engaged, I understand, in the carriage of coal on the U.K. E. coast. At 3.30 a.m. on Jun. 12, 1913, Newark, a Newcastle collier, sighted Hawkwood at sea, in heavy weather, with all of its running lights lit. It was, however, totally abandoned. Hawkwood's 17 man crew had left the vessel for reasons unknown, & had taken, it would seem, to the starboard lifeboat (tackle loose at the davit). The vessel drifted into Filey Bay, North Yorkshire, & lifeboats were launched to attempt a rescue. On Jan. 12, 1913, Hawkwood was driven onto the shore under the cliffs at Speeton, near 'King & Queen' rocks, & capsized. At 54.10.30N/00.15.00W. In a south-easterly gale, the vessel, identified by its lifeboats & lifebuoys, quickly broke up. Locals scavenged for coal strewn on the beach. Later the hulk was dynamited to break it apart. There are remains still there today, visible, however, only rarely & only at low tide. A contributory factor in the disaster may have been a design flaw that required the vessel to be continually 'trimmed' to maintain stability as coal was burned. While it is said that one body was later recovered, the crew were essentially never heard from. Can you correct the above or add anything?
A cargo ship, that had a very short life, about 7 months only. Per 1 (Moss Steamship, history), 2 ('wrecksite.eu', 1900 wreck), 3 (New York Times article, Jun. 1900), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 110.7 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, speed? Built for Moss Steamship Co. Ltd., J. Moss & Co. the managers, both of Liverpool. On Jun. 26, 1900, the vessel, Captain Easterbrook in command, en route from Quebec, Canada, to Liverpool, with a cargo of lumber, went aground in dense fog at Cape Anguille, at the SW tip of Newfoundland, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The ship was leaking badly & several of her crew were injured by the shifting of the deck load. It would seem to have later become a total loss. Have read little about the circumstances. However, I read that an official inquiry was held into the vessel's loss & that a copy of the official report is in the Library Archives (or maybe the Record Office) at Liverpool. Likely no loss of life? The WWW is almost totally silent about this vessel. Can you add anything at all?
3013 (or 2986) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Woolston), 2 (page in French re Setesdal), 3 (UC 52), 4 ('uboat.net', Woolston sinking), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 325 ft. long, speed of 9 knots. Built for 'Claverhill Steamship Co. Ltd.', of London, (E. Haslehurst & Co. managers). In 1906, the vessel was sold to 'Wing Steamship Co.', (N. Hallett & Co. managers), & renamed White Wings. Registered at London. In 1913, it was sold to 'Hants Steam Navigation Co.' (A. H. Williams & Co. the managers) & renamed Woolston. In 1916, it was sold again, to 'Woolston Steamship Co.' (S. Instone & Co. managers). On Sep. 3, 1916, the vessel was in collision, off Belle Île, Brittany, France, with Setesdal, 1476 tons, which vessel sank. On May 14, 1918, while en route from Syracuse to Messina, (both Sicily), with a cargo of sulphur, the vessel was torpedoed & sunk by UC 52, Oberleutnant zur See 'Hellmuth von Doemming' in command, 1 1/2 miles from Syracuse Harbour. The wreck lies in 85 metres of water at 37.05.124N/15.19.227E, (& not at 37.30N/12.20E) as advised (thanks!) by Stefano Ruia of the 'D.W.E.L.L.E.R.' dive team. Stefano advises further that only the bow is in a good state today - the middle & aft sections having been destroyed by fishermen - who used to fish the area with bombs! 19 lives were lost including the Captain. Anything to add? Or correct?
64 Falls of Lora
3938 (or 3788) tons
A cargo ship, which had a very short life. Per 1 (newspaper extracts thanks to Ray Ranns), 2 (Feb. 04, 1901 arrival at Adelaide), 3 (crew list, Mar. 04, 1901, at Sydney), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 362 ft. overall, 106.7 metres long perpendicular to perpendicular, 350.3 ft., single screw, speed of 11 knots at her trials, in Mar. 1901 a crew of 35 all told, the largest ship that 'Blumer' ever built. The vessel was christened Falls of Lora, by Miss Graeme Blumer, at her launch on Sep. 13, 1900 (or on Sep. 1, 1900 per Miramar). Built to the order of Wright, Graham & Co. of Glasgow. However, the 'Dundee Courier', in its Sep. 22, 1900 edition, advised that the vessel had been sold, for £57,000, to Gillison & Chadwick, of Liverpool. However Gillison & Chadwick or maybe 'J. Chadwick & Sons' (collectively 'Chadwick'), were clearly the vessel's managers rather than the owners & the true owners were 'Astral Shipping Co. Ltd.' ('Astral'), also of Liverpool. But .. could Chadwick have owned Astral? The vessel was renamed Drumcuil. The vessel traded with ports of the W. coast of South America. It would seem that the vessel made a single voyage to Australia. On Jan. 01, 1901, the vessel, Herbert Nicholson in command, left New York, ex London, for Port Adelaide, Australia, with a general cargo, including 32,500 cases of kerosene & barbed wire. It left Port Adelaide for Melbourne, Sydney, & Brisbane (its cargo arriving at Sydney), picked up coal at Newcastle, & on or about Apl. 13, 1901, left Melbourne for Durban, South Africa, with a cargo that included fodder. It picked up more coal at Albany en route. On May 7, 1905, the vessel, en route from Iquique, northern Chile, to the U.K. with a cargo of nitrates, was wrecked at Boa Vista, Cape Verde. I have not read the circumstances. Any loss of life? Note that Charles Hocking advises that at that time the vessel was owned by 'J. Chadwick & Sons' - but Astral was then, I believe, the true owner, per a data 'snippet' ex 'The Syren & Shipping Illustrated' of 1905. The WWW record is modest for this vessel. Do you have anything you can add? #1892
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 106.7 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, (350 ft.), single screw, speed of 10 knots. Built for 'William Penn Steamship Co. Ltd.', of London, with 'Hill & Cassap', also of London, the managers. Likely traded with the E. coast of U.S. - 'Pennmanor' & 'Philadelphia' both relate to Pennsylvania. In 1907, the vessel was sold to 'P. L. Fisker', likely of the U.S., & renamed Philadelphia. The vessel was sold again, in 1910, to 'C. K. Hansen Line' ('Hansen'), of Copenhagen, Denmark, & renamed Jungshoved. Hansen would seem to have, amongst probably many routes, linked Baltic ports with S. America. The vessel carried iron ore from Cruz Grande, Chile, to Philadelphia in 1916 via the Panama Canal. Would seem to have traded frequently with South America. The vessel was detained at Falmouth during WW1. And was stranded in 1922, in a U.S. port?, but I am not sure exactly where. The vessel arrived, on May 25, 1932, at Aalborg, Denmark, to be broken up. The WWW record is essentially non-existent. Do you have anything you could add?
66 Ras Bera
3837 (or 4113) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Tocantins), 2 (images of wreck & Tocantins, in Portuguese), 3 (Lloyd Brasileiro, Tocantins), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). Alas, 2 Portuguese sites with data re the sinking seem to no longer exist. 340 ft. long, speed of 9 knots. Built for 'Ras Steam Shipping Co.' (Grahams & Co. managers?), of London. The vessel may have been launched as Sneaton. In 1908, the vessel was sold to 'Buarque Line Ltd.', an Anglo-Brazilian consortium, (E. Ribeiro the manager?), of London & renamed Tocantins. In 1911, the vessel was sold to 'Lloyd Brasileiro'. Shortly after midnight on Aug. 30, 1933, Captain A. Catramby in command, while en route from Paranaguá (N of São Francisco) to Rio de Janeiro (all Brazil) with a cargo of food, building supplies & timber, the vessel ran aground in calm but foggy conditions on rocks off Queimada Grande island, near Santos (São Paulo). At 24.29S/46.40W. Two tugs (São Paulo & Dorat Commander), were sent to lend assistance. Pará, a steamship, which heard the S.O.S., also? It would seem that the Captain expected to save the ship but the weather changed & the vessel was driven further onto the rocks in a storm, wrecked & abandoned. The entire crew taken to Rio de Janeiro by Dorat Commander. A popular dive site today in 6-22 metres of water. Anything to add? I did ask if I had the translation from Portuguese correct. But the Portuguese sites have gone AWOL.
67 Burbo Bank
2822 tons 7150
A cargo ship. Per 1 & 2 (both data), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 319 ft. 7 in. long, speed of 9 or 9 1/2 knots, later (U.S.) a complement of 131. Built for Fenwick Shipping Co. Ltd., of Liverpool, (W. Esplen Jr. & Co. the manager). The vessel was sold, in 1914, to Leonhardt & Blumberg of Hamburg, Germany, & renamed Frieda Leonhardt. The vessel took refuge, in WW1, at Jacksonville, Florida. The vessel was seized by U.S. & transferred to the U.S. Navy on May 22, 1917. Converted for naval service at Charleston, South Carolina & renamed Astoria. Commissioned USS Astoria (SP 2005) on Nov. 15, 1917. On Feb 15, 1918, the vessel was anchored in port at Brest, France, but was rammed by French vessel SS La Drome necessitating extensive repairs. Vessel was used as a coal carrier into 1919 & then as a general cargo ship. Reclassified a cargo ship AK-8 on Jul. 17, 1920 with the Pacific Fleet. Was decommissioned at Boston on Apl. 20, 1921. On Dec. 20, 1921, the vessel was sold to Richard T. Green of Chelsea, Mass., & renamed Astoria. And in 1929, the vessel was sold to 'H. N. Hartwell & Sons' & renamed Hartwelson. The vessel ran aground, on May. 5, 1943, at Bantam Rock or Rocks, Sheepscot Bar, Maine, U.S.A., & foundered. Can you add anything?
68 Rose Lea
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking data), 2 ('wrecksite.eu', sinking data, image), 3 (data, Rose Lea), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 97.4 metres long perpendicular to perpendicular. Built for 'Brankelow Steamship Co. Ltd.', 'Wheatley and Company' the managers, both of Liverpool. Per Miramar, the vessel was soon sold, in 1904, to Sylvia Steamship Co. Ltd. ('Sylvia'), of Liverpool, with no later ownership changes. But I think that it is more likely to be correct that 'Lloyd Henry & Co.' then became the owners with Sylvia the managers. 2 indicates that at the time of her sinking, in 1917, the vessel was owned by Hansen Brothers Limited, of Cardiff. Can anybody clarify the owner/manager history status, perhaps with reference to editions of Lloyd's register unavailable to the webmaster. In 1915, the vessel carried timber from Port Arthur, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada, now Thunder Bay, to Liverpool. On Mar. 14, 1917, while en route from Cardiff, Wales, to Malta, with a cargo of coal, the vessel, defensively armed, was sunk by a torpedo fired without warning by U-62, Kapitänleutnant Ernst Hashagen in command. At 48.45N/12.08W, stated to be 230 miles W. of Bishop Rock (W. of the Scilly Islands, off Land's End). The location would seem to more easily described as being about 300 miles SW of Land's End. While I have not read how the crew was saved, I understand that there were no casualties. Can you add anything? #1815
2788 (or 2774) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('26 July, Thur.', but see also '28 May, Mon.' & '2 July, Mon.'), 2 ('uboat.net', Margarita), 3 (1917 mine), 4 (UB 40), 5 (UC 40), 6 (mine, '28 May, Mon.'), 7 (mine, '5 June, Tue.'), 8 (mine, '2 July, Mon.' & '26 July, Thur.'), 8 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 314 ft. (about 100 metres) long, speed of 8 1/2 knots. Built for the Argentinian (but British owned) 'The Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Company, Limited.' (A. Holland the manager), of London. On Jun. 11, 1917, while en route from Hull to Madras, India, with a cargo of coal, the vessel was torpedoed by UB 40, Kapitänleutnant Hans Howalt in command, 16 miles SW of Brighton, East Sussex. There was no loss of life. While damaged, the vessel was able to make it to (which?) port. UB 40 was a most successful submarine in WW1 - with 4 commanders it sank 99 ships & damaged 14 more, including Margarita. On Sep. 10, 1917, while en route, with a cargo of coke, from the River Tyne to the White Sea, (likely to Archangel, Barents Sea, NW Russia) the vessel struck a mine, laid by UC 40, (Kapitänleutnant Hermann Menzel in command) approx. 1 mile S. of Bressay Lighthouse, (4 km. S. of Lerwick), Shetland Islands. No lives were lost, however the vessel was heavily damaged & only became operational again in 1921. In 1922, the vessel was sold to Scandinavian Shipping Co. Ltd., of London. The vessel was sold, in 1936, to 'Rederi Ab Turret', 'K. Hansen' likely the manager, & renamed Tilda. It was sold again, in 1942, to 'Johs. Fritzen & Sohn', of Emden (or Stettin), Germany, & renamed Annette Fritzen. Was chartered by the Japanese during WW2. And maybe was owned by the Japanese Government? Later data is confusing, to the webmaster at least. References also to Annette Fritzen Go. (I do not understand what 'Go' means). On May 28, 1945, Annette Fritzen hit a mine at 33.53N/130.05E. On Jun. 5, 1945, the vessel is said to have hit a mine off Sasebo Bay, at 33.56N/131.03E, & was damaged. A duplication? On Jul. 2, 1945, the vessel was further damaged ('most likely groundings or storms') at the entrance to Pusan harbour, Korea. The vessel hit a mine off Pusan, on Jul. 26, 1945. I have read that it then sank. At 35.00N/128.00E, perhaps, but that ref. may be approximate since it seems to be inland. Can you correct and/or expand the above text?
70 Whitby Abbey
2728 (or 2722 or 2723) tons
A cargo ship, a collier. Per 1 (data, 3 fine images as Weardale, Alfred Calvert & Kangars), 2 (Russian page, 4th item & after, same 3, but smaller, images), 3 (data, thanks to Ray Ranns), 4 ('plimsollshipdata.org', Lloyd's register data, 1930/31 to 1943/44), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 313.8 ft. long (95.6 metres) perpendicular to perpendicular, speed of 9 1/2 knots, signal letters TBDN & VLAX. The vessel was launched, as Whitby Abbey, for W. A. Rhodes, of Whitby, & was christened at its launching by Miss Lily Taylor, daughter of William Taylor, of Biddick Hall, South Shields - Mr. Taylor had superintended the vessel's construction. The vessel was soon sold to 'Weardale Steam Shipping Company Ltd.', of Sunderland, & renamed Weardale. On Jul. 8, 1903, the vessel left on its maiden voyage to Stockholm under that new ownership & name. The vessel was sold, in 1920, to A. Calvert (maybe 'A. Calvert Ltd.) of Goole, Yorkshire, (a 45 miles inland port, on Ouse River) & renamed Alfred Calvert. Have seen a slightly later ref., probably not relevant re this vessel, to 'Calvert Colliers (1923), Ltd.' (J. S. Calvert), to 'Calvert Steamship Company', & to a company which owned, it would seem, a single Calvert ship. The vessel was sold again, in 1923, to A. Kalnin, of Riga, Latvia, & renamed Kangars. And in 1935, the vessel was sold to 'Tv. Kangars Redereja', A. Kalnins the manager, also of Riga, with no change of vessel name. In Jun. 1940, the vessel was seized by the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), & seized again, by Germany, in Jun. 1941. And renamed Michael by the Germans. None of these ownership changes were recorded in Lloyd's Registers. On Apl. 1, 1942, the vessel was torpedoed & sunk by Soviet submarine SC-404, off Tanafjord (Tanafjorden), maybe 8 miles from Kirkenes, in the far NE of Norway, on the Barents Sea. At 70.45N/30.10E. (A number of sites confirm SC-404, but 2 refers, in translation, to Z-404). Any loss of life? WWW data is most limited. Am grateful to the folks at 1 for their data & imagery. Can you correct and/or expand the above text?
2735 (or 2790) tons
A cargo vessel. Which had a very long life indeed. Per 1 ('doc' file, Arranmoor history), 2 (link 1 translated), 3 (Finland Steamship, Ursa), 4 (Margaretta), 5 (Moor Line Ltd., history), 6 (Moor line, fleet list), 7 (1952 grounding, 1/2 down p#6), 8 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 95.7 metres long, 314 ft., speed of 10 knots. Built for Moor Line Ltd., of London, Walter Runciman & Co. the managers. The vessel was sold, in 1914, to 'Dampskipselskab A/S Neptune' (Alex Bruusgaard) of Dramen, Norway, & renamed Nepos. It was sold again, in 1921, to 'Ørvigs Dampskipselskab A/S' (Olaf Ørvig), of Bergen, Norway, & renamed Johanne Dybwad. It would seem that there was an 'Admiralty Court' case in 1926 involving the vessel, but I have not been able to read much detail. It would seem, however, that an abandoned vessel was found in the Atlantic & was towed 1048 miles to port. I have not spotted the name of that abandoned vessel, which might even have been the Johanne Dybwad! Can anybody complete the story? In 1928, the vessel was sold to 'Russian-Baltic Steamship Company O/Y' (Helmsing & Grimm), of Riga, Latvia, & renamed Johanne. In 1936, the vessel was sold to 'Rederi A/B Deepseatrader O/Y' (Kristian Hansen) of Helsingfors (Helsinki), Finland, & renamed Karin. It was sold again, in 1941, to 'Finska Ångfartygs Aktiebolaget' (Finland Steamship Company Limited), of Finland of course, & renamed Ursa. In 1944, the vessel was seized by the Germans at Holtenau (Kiel) & was managed for Germany (Deutsches Reich) by H. Vogemann, of Bremen. In 1945, the vessel was either sunk in an Allied air attack at Bremen or maybe was scuttled to block access to the port, but was re-floated & salvaged in 1945 (or maybe Aug. 1946). The vessel was sold in 1947 to 'Lovisa Ångfartygs A/B' [which company changed its name in 1956 to 'Lovisa Sag & Tunnfabrik A/B'] (Ragnar Nordstrom & Co.) of Lovisa, Finland, & renamed Margareta. On Dec. 22, 1952, Captain Sundell in command, the vessel ran aground in heavy weather on the S. face of Ailsa Craig, an island in the Firth of Clyde, while en route to Glasgow with a cargo of iron ore. Three tugs attended the scene. There was no loss of life - 11 crew members were rescued by the Girvan & Campbeltown lifeboats & landed at Campbeltown, the rest staying aboard to survey the damage - until the ship began to slide off the rocks & they too had to be rescued. On Dec. 29, 1952, Brigadier, a Steel & Bennie tug, succeeded in patching up Margareta's bow damage, re-floated her & towed her to Gareloch, Firth of Clyde, for repairs. The vessel was broken up, in Feb. 1961, at the Ghent, Belgium, facilities of Van Heyghen Freres. A large part of the above data was available thanks to Chris Lambert, historian of the Tynemouth Volunteer Life Brigade, whose museum contains a fine model of the ship & the descriptive text at left. Thanks so much Chris! A site visitor has been in touch (thanks!) to indicate that he believes the vessel was initially named Arranmore rather that Arranmoor & refers to Lloyd's Appendix of 1907 (shipbuilders) as confirming that fact. I am not yet convinced, however, but maintain an open mind on the subject. Can you add anything?
72 Loyal Briton
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('wrecksite.eu', sinking data, Andromeda), 2 (Dutch article, ex 'Utrechts Nieuwsblad', of Oct. 2, 1933, available here), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 89.9 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, speed? Built for 'Gibbs & Lee', of Cardiff. In 1912, the vessel was sold to 'Tempus Shipping Co. Ltd.', 'W. H. Seager' the managers, both of Cardiff, & renamed Salvus. In 1919, the vessel was sold again, to 'The Town Line (London) Ltd.', of London, & renamed Johnstown. In 1925, the vessel would seem to have been acquired by 'Chr. Jones & Co.', also of London, with no change of vessel name. In 1930, the vessel was sold to 'K. Blau & Co.', of Riga, Latvia, & renamed Andromeda. In late Sep. 1933, the vessel was en route from Barry, Wales, to Algiers, Algeria, with a cargo of coal. On Sep. 29, 1933, the vessel hit a submerged object & foundered at 48.40N/7.03W, 80 miles from the Island of Ushant, a small rocky island in the English Channel off the coast of Brittany, near Brest, France. I have not read what it was that the vessel hit. Two British & a Dutch vessel may have responded to the ship's SOS. Many sites state that Carinthia received the message, but she was distant & it is not clear if she actually went to Andromeda's assistance. Andromeda sank but 19 of the crew of 20 were saved by Hartside. The WWW record for this ship is scanty. Anything to add?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (45% down, French page, with 1929 image), 2 ('Le Quellec', Psyché references), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). About 100 metres long, speed of 9 1/2 knots. Built for 'A. C. Le Quellec et Fils', of Bordeaux, France, (or maybe of Algiers), which company maintained a small fleet of ships for the transportation of wines. On Sep. 5, 1913, the vessel ran aground in the fog near Yport, at the mouth of the River Seine. 2000 barrels of wine were thrown overboard in an effort to free the ship. And, if I understand the French words correctly, the vessel was freed 8 days later at a high spring tide - & only 600 of the barrels were recovered, by the owners at least! The vessel was sold, in 1916, to 'Cie Des Chemins de Fer du Paris-Orléans', a railway company, for use as a collier to transport coal from England. From 1929 to 1938, the vessel was bare-boat chartered to 'Coy Delmas-Vieljeux'. In Feb. 1939, it was made into a pontoon for the French Navy, at Lorient, Brittany. The vessel sank during WW2. But I have read no detail. Anything to add?
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking, Antonio), 2 ('wrecksite.eu', sinking), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 95.7 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 314 ft., speed of 9 1/2 knots. Built for 'Talbot Steamship Co. Ltd.' ('Talbot'), of London & maybe of Swansea too, which company seems to have owned an earlier (A & B) vessel of the identical name, built at Sunderland by 'Doxford' in 1877 (Talbot acquired the 1877 vessel in 1893). In 1907, the vessel was sold to 'Egypt & Levant Steamship Co. Ltd., also of London, T. Bowen Rees & Co., Ltd., of West Hartlepool, the managers, with no change of vessel name. On Mar. 17, 1917, while en route from Barry, Wales, to Cherbourg, France, with a cargo of hay, the vessel hit a mine 7 miles off Dartmouth, Devon. It would appear that German submarine UC-17, Kapitänleutnant Ralph Wenninger in command, had laid 4 barrages of mines off Dartmouth between Nov. 1916 & Feb. 1917. And Antonio hit one of those mines. The sinking was previously, & incorrectly it would seem, attributed to a gunfire attack by U-48. The Captain & 10 crew members of Antonio were lost in the explosion. Is it possible that the entire crew lost their lives? Any survivor would surely have remembered being attacked by a surfaced submarine, if that had happened. The wreck has long since been located, 40 years or so ago, in 30 metres of water, (a most dangerous dive with strong currents & zero visibility, I understand), witness the beautiful builder's plate at left, provided by a kindly site visitor. Anything to add? Or to correct?
2844 (or 2885) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('pdf' in Danish, Runø, item 298 on p.56), 2 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 96.8 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular (318 ft.), single screw, speed of 9 knots. Built for 'Northcliffe Steamship Company Ltd.', of Cardiff, 'Evans Vyvyan & Co.' either the owners or managers. In 1909, the vessel was sold to 'Solleveld Meer VH', of Holland, & renamed Moerdijk. The vessel was sold again, in 1922, to 'George Nisbet & Company Limited', of Glasgow, & renamed Blairbeg. And sold again, in 1930, to 'C. Jensen et al', maybe 'C. Jensen Line', & renamed Vizma. The vessel was sold, for the last time, in 1940, also to 'C. Jensen et al', & renamed Runo. I cannot spot, at 'convoyweb.org', any WW2 convoy references re this Runo. Nor for Vizma. On Dec. 18, 1946, the vessel hit a mine, 200 metres E. of the Blendheim lighthouse or light buoys, at Fasterbo which seems to be at the SW tip of Sweden. The vessel sank & was lost? Can any kind Danish speaker confirm that the text at 1 does relate to this vessel & if so provide a translation? It would seem that para. b) relates to Runo & that it was en route from Gefle, Sweden, to Middlesborough, with ore, when it hit a mine on Dec. 18, (not 28 as per Miramar?), 1946. And it maybe was involved in an earlier collision? On Mar. 25, 1946 while en route, in ballast, from Copenhagen to Kalundborg (both Denmark). WWW translation from the Danish produced little, in fact, that was intelligible. And the WWW record re the vessel is most limited. Anything to add?
A cargo ship, a collier. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking, Marstonmoor), 2 (sinking ref., Marstonmoor), 3 (Moor Line), 4 (Moor Line history), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 95.7 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, single screw, speed of ? knots. Built for 'Moor Line Limited' ('Moor') of London, owned & managed by 'Walter Runciman & Co.' On Apl. 14, 1918, defensibly armed, while en route from Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Wales, to Murmansk/Archangel, northern Russia, with coal & a general cargo including mails, the vessel was hit by a torpedo fired by U-107, Oberleutnant zur See Kurt Slevogt in command. At 59.34N/04.54W, 55 miles NNE of Cape Wrath, NW Scotland, the most north-westerly point in U.K. I read that no lives were lost, but have not read the name of the Captain, the number of crew or how they were all saved. The WWW record re the vessel is most limited. Anything to add?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (data), 2 (wreck & 1917 sinking), 3 (UB 31), 4 (map & location, 90% down), 5 (about 30% down, Riversdale data), 6 (#39 in 100 best dives list), 7 ('wrecksite.eu', wreck), 8 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 317.5 ft. (about 102 metres) long. Built for 'P. H. Laing', of Sunderland. Presumably soon sold (no change of name) - '1910 owned by R. C. Thompson, Sunderland' - who still owned the vessel in Dec. 1917. On Dec. 18, 1917, defensively armed & under the command of Capt. Simpson, while en route from the Tyne to Savona, Italy, with a cargo of coal for the Italian State Railway, the vessel was hit on the forward port side by a single torpedo fired by UB 31, near the Start Light at Start Point, Devon. A large explosion. One life was lost. The vessel did not instantly sink. It was run aground on the rocks at Elender Cove, near Prawle Point, Devon, where, with the help of salvage experts, temporary repairs were effected & the torpedo hole was patched. On Dec. 28, 1917, tugs pulled her off hoping she could make it safely to nearby Salcombe. But after proceeding only about 1000 yards the patch blew off, the vessel sank, upright, in about 42 metres of water & the bow broke away. The wreck is still there today, at 50.11.44N/03.44.04W (or maybe at 50.11.73N/ 03.44.07W, data in conflict), with the hull, but not the superstructure, substantially intact. Owned by the Torbay Branch (Torquay) of the 'British Sub-Aqua Club' ('BSAC'), who bought it 'for a fiver in 1964'. In 1967, the Kingston (now Kingston & Elmbridge) Branch of BSAC recovered a brass ship's bell from the wreck, & gave it to Torbay Branch, where it hangs today. We thank Tony Hillgrove for the images which result in the 'composite' bell image at left (lower), taken at 'Torbay', & thank also Alan Dunster for his much appreciated diligence in the matter. The bell that was recovered has, I understand, no inscriptions & may well not be the main Riversdale ship's bell. But it is, none the less, a most distinguished bell. Oberleutnant Thomas Bieber was in command of UB 31 - which was later sunk by depth charge, with the loss of all hands, on May 2, 1918. Anything to add, an image perhaps? Read here re the ship's bell image at left.
78 St. Paul
2534 (or 2550) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (data & image, St. Paul, in Swedish), 2 (data, with reference to the wreck being found), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 94.5 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, (310 ft.), speed of 10 knots, signal letters JQBT. Built for 'Angfartygs A/B St. George' (possibly 'St. George Steamship Company'), of Gothenburg (Göteborg), Sweden (A. O. Wilson the manager). An expired page referred to the vessel being in 1914 owned by 'Th. Willerding', but I suspect that they were the managers rather than the owners. Can anybody confirm or otherwise advise? On Aug. 31, 1914, the vessel, with a crew of 25 & under the command of Captain G. H. Svinhufvud, left Gothenburg in ballast for Sunderland. As she neared the U.K. coast a floating mine was seen & avoided & a sharp look-out was thereafter maintained. At 2:30 p.m. on Sep. 2, 1914, the vessel's keel struck a hidden anchored mine. Her hull was blasted open, & the vessel sank by the stern within 10 minutes. I have not read the coordinates of where she lies, but it is 28 miles ENE of the River Tyne. No lives were lost. The crew took to boats, dodged more mines in the water, & were rescued 2 hours later by Bruse & Baltzac, both Norwegian ships. They were landed at North Shields. The ship had been valued at 400,000 Swedish Krona. The wreck was discovered recently, in 2006, & identified via an engraving on a ship's bell. 'The Maritime Museum of Gothenburg' has extensive material about the ship including images, it would appear, & is surely the original source of the information above, which I saw in a now long gone website. Which however read as follows (I had saved the text at the site & thanks the unknown person whose site it was). WWW data is limited, the name being a quite difficult search term. Anything to add, another image perhaps?
A cargo ship. Per 1 & 2 (page bottom) (both re Crete), 3 (Vivid), 4 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Tanais, but I cannot check the link), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). About 80 metres long, speed of 10 knots. Built for Wm. France, Fenwick & Co. Ltd., of London. In 1935, the vessel was sold to Synodinos Bros, of Piraeus, Greece, & renamed Tanais. 9 convoy ref. during early WW2, all except 1 in the Eastern Mediterranean. On May 26, 1941, the vessel was sunk by a German air strike, at Suda (Souda) Bay, on the N. coast of Crete. It was refloated & repaired by German forces. And became a German ship managed by 'Mittelmeer Reed GmbH' during WW2. In Jun. 1944, the Germans rounded up the Jews living on the island of Crete. They were sent to Iraklion (Heraklion), Crete, & along with some 600 Greek & Italian prisoners, boarded Tanais for transportation to Athens & surely onward shipment to concentration camps (have read Auschwitz-Birkenau) for gassing & elimination (as had happened to the Jews of Salonika & elsewhere in Greece). On Jun. 9, 1944, Tanais was unfortunately torpedoed by Vivid, a V Class British submarine, in the Aegean. I have seen references to the sinking being near the Island of Milos. But if it was at 35.35N/25.11E, as I have also read, it was off the northern coast of Crete. A now long gone website stated that the vessel was torpedoed N. of Iraklion. Vivid fired 2 torpedo broadsides, the ship sank within 15 minutes & everyone aboard apparently perished, mostly by drowning. Having now read of the above events of 1944, can I invite answers to the following questions: i) Was it the Jews of Iraklion or the Jews of all Crete? ii) how many Jews were put aboard Tanais? iii) how many 'prisoners' in total were aboard Tanais when it left for Athens? Re i), Constantinos Gofas has advised (thanks!) that it was the Jews of all Crete who were aboard the vessel. Anything more you can add?
A 'three-island' cargo ship. Per 1 (WW1 sinking), 2 & 3 (ref. July 4, 1917, sinking), 4 (Portreath), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 100.7 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 330.5 ft., speed of 8 1/2 knots. The vessel was built for 'Portreath Steamship Co. Ltd.', [McNeil, Hinde & Co., the managers & company owners (Robert McNeil & William Hinde)], of Cardiff. In 1915, it would seem that W. E. Hinde (William?) split away from McNeil, Hinde & Co. to operate independently as Portfield Steamship Co. & took the Portreath with him, likely still held within 'Portreath Steamship Co. Ltd.' but managed, strangely perhaps, by R. McNeil & Sons. In 1916, the vessel was sold to 'Charlton Steamship Co. Ltd.', or maybe 'Charlton Steam Shipping Co. Ltd.', (have read both), of Newcastle (Charlton, McAllum & Co. Ltd., the managers), & renamed Hurstside. The above ownership data may need correction - do help if you can. On Jun. 30, 1917, the vessel left Barry, Wales, defensively armed, (a single 12 pounder gun mounted on its stern) for Archangel, (Arkhangelsk), Russia, with a cargo of coal. On Jul. 4, 1917,, the vessel was sunk by a torpedo fired by UC54, NW of the Orkney Islands. At 60.25N/4.38W, 108 miles NNE of Cape Wrath. No loss of life. Now the WWW record for this vessel is most limited. But thanks to Robert N. (Bob) Baird, who has kindly provided extracts from his book, I can advise you of the principal circumstances. The ship zigzagged continuously as instructed but particularly since it was shadowed by a schooner that acted rather suspiciously & may well have been UC54 disguised with masts & sails. The vessel was hit by the torpedo & sank by the stern when it was dispatched with 3 shells fired by UC54. Captain John Howe & his crew (26 all told) took to 2 boats, & were provided with food by 'Heinrich XXXVII Prinz Reuss', the German Commander. After 4 hours, they were picked up by Owl, an Aberdeen trawler, & landed at Pierowall, Westray, Orkney Islands. A most distressing reception there - they were not permitted to enter the then empty hotel. The ship also carried an interesting deck cargo, of 4 tracked vehicles. Bob advises that the wreck was located in 1996 at 60.17.43N/04.14.58W, with hull plates blown outwards & surrounded by coal. Thanks Bob Baird, for your appreciated & detailed data. Anything more you can add? Another image?
2958 (or 3025) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (ref. Boverton), 2 (legal matters relating to Meret as a result of the U.S. requisition of the vessel, p#29 thru #39), 3 (U.S. 1941 requisitions, Maret/Sysonby, 50% down), 4 (Sysonby the race horse), 5 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Sysonby, but I cannot check the link), 6 (Wikipedia, 'Radcliffe', Boverton data 45% down), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 96.2 metres long, 325 ft., speed of 10 knots. With 'absolutely clear holds and very large hatches'. Built, for £26,500, for 'Wimborne Steamship Co. Ltd.' (likely a Radcliffe company) with Evan Thomas Radcliffe & Co., of Cardiff, the managers. The vessel was renamed Llangorse on May 3, 1928. It was sold on Feb. 20, 1930, for £17,244, to 'Tallinn Shipping Company, Ltd.', of Estonia, a 'shipping copartnership' of a number of Estonian citizens, was renamed Maret & registered in Estonia. In Jul. 1940, the vessel was under charter to Saguenay Terminals, Ltd., of Quebec, Canada, & engaged in the shipment of bauxite from Georgetown, British Guiana to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. The vessel was one of many vessels requisitioned by the U.S. Government in 1941, pursuant to this Jun. 1941 law. Thanks to both Toni Horodysky & Ron Carlson, I learn that many such requisitioned vessels were renamed after famous race horses, Maret being renamed Sysonby, after a U.S. race horse which was 'Horse of the Year' in 1905 & is, in fact, still with us today - his skeleton has been on display since 1907 at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Sysonby was managed by Lykes Brothers Steamship Co., & registered at Panama. 39 WW2 convoy references from Jul. 1942 to war's end, all in the Caribbean thru Key West, Florida, areas. The vessel was broken up at Philadelphia in Oct. 1951, (arrived there on Sep. 28, 1951?). Can anybody clarify the exact date when Meret was requisitioned by the U.S. & where the vessel was at the time? Or provide data additional to the above? An image?
A collier. Per 1 (ref. Euston), 2 (24 October 1917, Euston), 3 ('uboat.net', Euston), 4 (ref.), 5 (2nd para. from bottom), 6 ('wrecksite.eu', 1917 sinking), 7 (UC-34), 8 (Evan Thomas & Henry Radcliffe, this Euston is not listed, but an image is), 9 (data), 10 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 315.5 ft. long (96.2 metres) perpendicular to perpendicular. Built for Euston Steamship Co. Ltd. of Cardiff, with Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Company, ('Radcliffe') the managers. I have read that Radcliffe had as many as 31 'single ship' companies & Euston Steamship Co. Ltd. was presumably one of the 31. On Oct. 24, 1917, while in a convoy from Cardiff to Mudros (Greece - Island of Lemnos) via Malta, defensively armed, the vessel was torpedoed without warning by German submarine UC-34, Oberleutnant zur See Horst Obermüller in command, & sunk. References to Austro-Hungarian submarine U-14 having fired the torpedo appear to be incorrect. In the Mediterranean, about 37 miles SW of Cape Matapan, (southern tip of mainland Greece). At approx 36.40N/22.21E, but I have also read at 35.33N/21.48E & 35.56.5N/21.56.3E. 1 life lost - John Evans, a carpenter. It would seem that the convoy escort commander ordered the merchantmen (including Euston no doubt) not to zig-zag, to maintain the speed of the convoy. Yet the blame for the loss was attributed at the Court of Inquiry not to that order but rather to Euston's master! His name? If anybody finds the report of the Court of Inquiry on line or otherwise, do advise the webmaster. The report is available from the National Archives, at Kew, for a fee, however. Can you add anything?
3221 (or 3328) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (image, Wearwood), 2 (Tang), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 335 ft. (about 107 metres) long, speed of 9 knots. Built for Constantine & Pickering Steamship Co., of Middlesbrough. The vessel was sold, in 1926, to Dairen Kisen K.K. (K.K. may mean Kabushiki Kaishu), of Japan, & renamed Roko Maru. On Dec. 2, 1943, the vessel was used as a Japanese prisoner of war transporter & carried 500 POWs from Batavia, Java, to Singapore. On Aug. 11, 1944, the vessel, in convoy, was torpedoed by U.S. Balao class submarine Tang, SS-306, Cdr. Richard H. O'Kane in command, off Nagashima, Honshu, Japan. At 33.58N/136.18E. Of note, on Oct. 24, 1944, Tang suffered the misfortune of sinking herself, with her own torpedo, when after surfacing, sinking Ebara Maru & damaging Matsumoto Maru, it fired a torpedo which ran in a complete circle. Near Turnabout Island in Formosa Strait at 25.06N/119.31E. 9 survivors only, including O'Kane. All 9 became POWs. Who says history is uninteresting? Can you add anything?
3158 (or 3311) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (1915 seizure), 2 (data, detail re Feb. 1917 rescue of Vedamore survivors), 3 (Silversides), 4 (Toyohime Maru, 15% down), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.3 metres, perpendicular to perpendicular, long, (332.5 ft.), speed of 7 knots. Built for Brook Steamship Co. Ltd., of Glasgow, with 'Miller & Richards' the managers. The vessel linked Mexico (Progreso) with U.S. ports in the Gulf of Mexico. In early Mar. 1915, carrying corn and groceries, the vessel was seized at Campeche, Mexico, & her Captain (Muir) was arrested under circumstances you can read at 1. On Feb. 7, 1917, Wyvisbrook rescued 36 survivors of Vedamore sunk by a torpedo fired by U 85, 20 miles W. of Fasnet Rock. Vedamore sank in six minutes. 39 survivors (of 60) took to the boats in bitter weather. Wyvisbrook picked up the 37 who still survived 10 hours later & transferred them to an armed patrol vessel which landed them at Berehaven, SW Ireland. On Aug. 2, 1918, a torpedo, fired at the vessel in the North Sea, missed its target. The vessel was sold, in 1920, to Romney Steamship Co. Ltd., of London, with 'Fawcett, Coverdale & Co.' the managers, & renamed Camberley. In 1926, the vessel was sold to 'Uyeno Kisen Goshi Kaisha', of Amagasaki, Japan, & in 1927 renamed Ryuto Maru, (or maybe Ryutoh Maru, a couple of refs. to the name incl. Miramar). On Jul. 3, 1933, when named Ryuto Maru, the vessel collided in fog with Toyohime Maru, off Kamaiski, or Todosaki, Japan. Toyohime Maru sank in just 30 minutes. In 1934, 'Nakamura Gumi, Ltd.' became the managers. The vessel was sold again, in 1938 to 'Philippine Mokuzai Yosutu K.K.', of Hutyu, Japan, (that name may instead be 'Philippine Makuzai Yusutu K.K.'). On Dec. 29, 1943, the vessel, travelling in convoy, was sunk by a torpedo fired by U.S. submarine Silversides, (SS-236) about 50 miles NW of the Palau Islands in the N. Pacific. At 08.03N/134.04E. Have read no detail as to the final convoy, its routing, cargo, or other details. Any loss of life? Can you add anything?
85 Dingle Bank
A cargo ship. Per 1 (extensive data, image, Sigurd Faulbaum), 2 (wreck data), 3 (image), 4 (U-9), 5 (vessel neutral in May 1940), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 331.0 ft. (about 106 metres) long, speed of 9 knots. Built for Dingle Shipping Co. Ltd., of Liverpool, (Stewart & Esplen Ltd., the managers). The vessel was sold, in 1913, to 'Cie des Chargeurs Français', of Bayonne, France, (Plisson & Cie., the managers), & renamed Anglet. The manager became 'Soc. Aux. des Chargeurs Français' in 1927. The vessel was sold twice, in 1931, it would seem - in Jan. 1931 to 'A. Power', of London, & later in the year to 'Constants South Wales Limited', of Cardiff (M. Constant, the manager) & renamed Nordeflinge. The vessel was sold again, in 1937, (or in Dec. 1936) to 'Max Faulbaum Steamship Line', of Riga, Latvia, (James Siering & Co., the managers), & renamed Sigurds Faulbaums. It was transferred, in Apl. 1940, to 'Max Faulbaum', of Stettin, then Germany now Poland, & renamed Sigurd Faulbaum. The vessel, apparently then a neutral vessel, (I wonder why?), was seized by the Belgian Government on May 10, 1940, when moored at Zeebrugge, Belgium, with engines out of order, likely the result of sabotage by the German crew prior to her seizure. On May 23, 1940, the vessel was under tow by Belgian tugs Baron de Maere & Graaf Visart, from Bruges to Dover with a cargo of lead (1 states tin & lead). Anyway, on May 23, 1940, while on tow, the vessel was hit by 2 torpedoes fired by U-9, Kapitän zur See Wolfgang Lüth in command. At 51.09N (or 51.29N) /02.38E, about 15 miles NE of Zeebrugge & S. of the 'Noord Hinder' lightship. The vessel broke in two & sank. The wreck seems, however, to be at 50.21.1N/02.36.8E. The crew were rescued from the still floating forepart by Graaf Visart, which then took Baron de Maere in tow & continued her voyage. So the crew was landed at Dover? It would seem one is not permitted to dive the wreck. Can you add anything?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Spanish page, data, image Urumea 80% down, Guipuzcoana), 2 (data, image Urumea, 70% down), 3 (Spanish page, data, image Urumea, Isleña Marítima), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.0 (or 100.97) metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, speed of 10 knots. Built for 'Whitby Steam Shipping Co. Ltd.', of Whitby, with T. Smailes & Son, (Captain Thomas Smailes) the manager. The vessel was sold, in 1919, to 'Mendiguren y Zaballa', of Bilbao, Spain, & renamed San Salvador. In 1930, the vessel was sold again, to 'Compañía Naviera Guipuzcoana S.A.', of Bilbao & San Sebastien, Spain, & renamed Urumea. And was sold again, in 1963, to 'Cía. Naval de Levante', (possibly 'Isleña Marítima'? - only found refs. to 'Unión Naval de Levante', a ship builder. Related or not?). And in 1965 (or 1966), the vessel was sold to 'Cía. Valenciana de Navegación', of Valencia, Spain, with no change of name in either case. The vessel was broken up at Cartagena, Spain, in Jun. 1967. Can you add anything? Or correct the above?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (data, Linkmoor wreck), 2 (data, Linkmoor), 3 (Moor Line), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 100.9 metres long (331 ft.). Built for 'Moor Line Limited' ('Moor') of London, owned by 'Walter Runciman & Co.'. The vessel was sold in 1920, as a part perhaps of the sale of the whole Moor line, at a high price perhaps, to 'Western Counties Shipping Co.' ('Counties'), & renamed Jedmead. Moor itself I believe failed but Counties became bankrupt & a new Moor (also Runciman) in 1922 bought back 8 ships sold earlier to Counties, including this vessel. It was renamed Linkmoor. On Nov. 10, 1930, while en route, in ballast, from Liverpool to Blyth, the vessel had engine trouble & was wrecked at Skarfskerry Head, Brough Bay. At approx. 58.39.33N/3.16.7W, 4/5 miles from Dunnet Head Lighthouse. At pretty well the most northerly point in Scotland. In a westerly gale, winds of force 8/9, heavy seas & squalls. 32 on board, 'all safely landed with the life saving apparatus'. Can you add anything?
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('Common' history about 30% down, but essentially no ref. to Tynehome), 2 (data, Camellia, with names of many of those lost), 3 (Stag Line history about 75% down), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). About 106 metres long. Built for 'Home Shipping Co. Ltd.', of Newcastle, which company may have been a small ship owning arm of Common Brothers. Or maybe 'Common' were only the managers? I say that because I can find no WWW references that link 'Common' with 'Home' other than this vessel. Sold in 1914 to "Stag Line", Ltd., (so I read), which later became 'Stag Line, Ltd.', of North Shields, (Joseph Robinson & Sons, the managers) & renamed Camellia. The vessel went missing in 1917. It sailed from Dakar, Senegal, for the U.K. on Nov. 27, 1917 with a crew of about 35. She was never heard from again & nobody knows, it would seem, what happened to her, her route or her cargo. She may have been torpedoed or hit a mine but there are many other possibilities & her loss may well not be war related. Can you add anything?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (U-132), 2 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Anastassios Pateras, but I cannot check the link), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 348 ft. (about 110 metres) long, speed of 10 knots. Built for 'The Brook Steamship Co. Ltd.' (Miller & Richards managers), of London. In 1921, the vessel was sold to 'C. Doresa & Co.' (who may, however, only be the agents) & renamed Svorono. The vessel was sold again, in 1926, to 'D. A. Pateras' or 'Anastassios Pateras & Sons', of Chios, Greece, & renamed Anastassios Pateras. 25 WW2 convoy references including 5 N. Atlantic crossings to & from Canada, service to Freetown, W. Africa, & U.K. local. On Jul. 6, 1942, while part of convoy QS-15, & en route from Montreal, Quebec to U.K. via Sydney, Nova Scotia, with grain & trucks, the vessel was hit by a torpedo fired by U-132, Kapitänleutnant Ernst Vogelsang in command, close to Cap-Chat & Ste. Anne-des-Monts, Quebec (Gaspé), (at 49.30N/ 66.30W). The vessel did not immediately sink. It sank later (at 49.12N/66.55W). 3 lives lost (26 survived). Any more data you could provide would be much appreciated. An image, perhaps?
90 John Blumer
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('pdf' in Norwegian Item 2), 2 (data, history, images), 3 (images), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 94.5 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, 309.5 ft. Built, at a price of NKr. (Norwegian kroner) 740.489, for C. H. Sørensen, of Arendal, Norway. On Dec. 31, 1914, the vessel was transferred to 'D/S A/S John Blumer', with no change of manager. A very brief reference in the 'New York Times' states that vessel left Baltimore on Apl. 29, 1915 for Copenhagen carrying grain. James Anderson has been in touch (thanks!) re the vessel's voyage from Arendal, Norway, to New York on Oct. 26, 1918 with Harold Jensen in command. An Anderson ancestor was a passenger aboard that voyage, but died en route due to the Spanish flu pandemic. Does anybody have an image of Captain Jensen? If so, do be in touch & I'll pass the image on to James. The managing company was renamed, in 1920, as C. H. Sørensen Sønner. In 1921, business sold to C. H. Sørensen & Sønner. I had previously advised here that the vessel, on Feb. 19, 1930 (or Jan. 1930), caught fire while loading 'jordnøtter' (peanuts or groundnuts). But it would seem that it may have rather caught fire when off Dakar, Senegal, en route from River Gambia to France. No loss of life - the crew took to the boats & landed at Dakar. Anyway, the vessel was beached at Hann Beach, Rufisque, nr. Dakar, refloated, & taken to Dakar. There the vessel was dismantled & suffered the indignity of being used as a Navy gunnery target. The insurance settlement was in the amount of Nkr. 675.000. A mid 1920s image of vessel exists in South Africa, but the link is gone. I am not at all sure of much of the above data. Any help you could provide with Norwegian or re the vessel would be much appreciated.
91 Rio de Janeiro
2827 (or 2826) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Hamburg-American, Tinos), 2 [Deutsche Levante, Tinos (3)], 3 (Thunderbolt, 14 Sep 1941, about 50% down page), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.7 metres long, speed of 10 knots, accommodation for 8 1st Class passengers. Built for 'Det Nordenfjeldske Dampskibsselskab', of Trondheim, Norway. The vessel was engaged in the South American trade, running regularly between Norway & the River Plate, calling at Santos, Bahia, Buenos Aires & Rosario. In 1925, the vessel was sold to 'Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfarhrt AG', (HAPAG), of Hamburg, Germany, & renamed Tinos. In 1935, it was sold or transferred to 'Deutsche Levante Line' (in which HAPAG had a controlling interest), also of Hamburg. In 1941, the vessel was taken over by German Naval Transport (maybe G. Bock & Co. relates?) On Sep. 14, 1941, near Benghazi, Libya, HMS Thunderbolt fired three torpedoes against the vessel but they all missed. On Nov. 26, 1941, (that date may be incorrect, many dates referenced), the vessel was bombed by British aircraft & sunk at Benghazi. No crew losses perhaps. Any help you could provide re the vessel would be much appreciated.
92 Rio de la Plata
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Fred Olsen Line, San Carlos), 2 (Norwegian page, Rio de la Plata, image), 3 (link 3, WWW translated), 4 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Grand-Quevilly, but I cannot check the link), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.7 metres long, 348 ft. 0 in., perpendicular to perpendicular, 333 ft. 6 in., speed of 12 1/2 (or 11 or 12) knots, accommodation for 8 1st Class passengers. Built for 'A/S Det Nordenfjeldske Dampskibsselskab', of Trondheim, Norway. The vessel was engaged in the South American trade, running regularly between Norway & the River Plate, calling at Santos, Bahia, Buenos Aires & Rosario. In 1924, the vessel was sold to 'A/S Ganger Rolf', owned & managed by 'Fred Olsen & Co.', of Kristiania (Oslo), & in 1925 was renamed San Carlos. In Sep. 1934, the vessel was transferred to Fred Olsen & Co. In Dec. 1937, the vessel was sold to 'Compagnie France-Navigation S. A.' ('Navigation'), of Rouen, France, (have also read Algiers), & renamed Grand Quevilly. In Sep. 1939, Navigation was taken over by the French Government & the ship was managed by 'Worms & Cie.', of Rouen. 19 WW2 convoy references as Grand-Quevilly, almost entirely re service in the Mediterranean. In Sep. 1946, the vessel was returned to Navigation. In 1951, the vessel was sold to Vicenzo Mirabella, of Catania, Sicily, & renamed Sant' Angela. On Aug. 1, 1959, the vessel arrived at Fumicio, (means Fumicino, near Rome perhaps?), to be broken up. There is very little data WWW available about this vessel. Your help with additional data/images would be much appreciated.
2962 or 2955 (not 4008, I believe) tons
A cargo vessel. Per 1 ('uboat.net', Sesostris), 2 (U-106), 3 (Convoy SC-19, also p.2, 70% down), 4 (Moor Line history), 5 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Sesostris, but I cannot check the link), 6 (Lloyd's Register data, Middlemoor/ Sesostris, 1930/31 thru 1940/41, ex 'plimsollshipdata.org'), 7 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 103.6 metres long, perpendicular to perpendicular, (340 ft.) speed of 8 1/2 knots, signal letters JKGR & SUCN. Built for Moor Line Ltd. ('Moor') of London, (W. Runciman & Co., the owners & managers). Carried a crew of 32 when it arrived at Ellis Island, New York, ex Dieppe, France, on Aug. 31, 1917. In 1919, the vessel was sold to Western Counties Shipping Company Limited (Edwards Son & Co. the managers) ('Counties') & renamed Arranmead. In 1922, when Counties failed, the vessel was bought back by Moor (at a lower price) with 7 other vessels & renamed Middlemoor. Carried 2,000 tons of Egyptian black cottonseed to Southampton where it arrived on Dec. 28, 1933. The vessel was sold again, in 1936, to Albert Klat, later A. & R. Klat, of Alexandria, Egypt, possibly 'Klat Navigation Co. Ltd., & renamed Sesostris. Alexandria, Egypt, registered. 9 WW2 convoy references including 1 completed N. Atlantic crossing & service to Gibraltar. At 7.15 a.m. on Jan. 29, 1941, the vessel was en route from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to Liverpool & Dublin with general cargo, in Convoy SC-19. A straggler. The vessel was hit near the bridge by a torpedo fired by U-106, Korvettenkapitän Jürgen Oesten in command, & sank by the bow within 10 minutes. The first torpedo had missed & the ship manoeuvred to prevent the attack which was at 56.00N/15.23W, W. of Ireland. I read that no trace of the ship or its crew was ever found. So all lost, therefore. Can you help with more data and/or correct the above? An image?
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('uboat.net', Adamandios Georgandis, image), 2 (ref. p.208), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 348 ft. 5 in., (106.3 metres) long, speed of 9 knots. Built for 'Portland Steamship Co. Ltd.', of Cardiff, (R. McNeill & Sons, the managers). In 1918, the vessel was renamed Portrushton. In 1923, it was sold to 'Portvale Steamship Co. Ltd.', also of Cardiff, (R. T. S. & W. S. Hinde, the managers). And in 1932, was sold to 'Georgandis Bros.' of Piraeus, Greece, & renamed Adamandios Georgandis. On Jun. 19, 1940, the vessel was en route, unescorted, from Rosario, Argentina, to Cork, Ireland, with an unknown cargo, when it was hit in the engine room by a torpedo fired by U-28, Korvettenkapitän Günter Kuhnke in command, SW of Ireland. And was sunk by a second torpedo aft, fired at 8 p.m. At 49.35N/11.15W. 1 life lost. It would seem that the wreck may have been located. Lies in about 190 metres of water. WWW data is most limited. Can you help with more data about the vessel?
A cargo ship. Per 1 (Portuguese page, wreck images), 2 (Fernando de Noronha map), 3 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 348.5 ft. (about 116 metres or maybe 111) long. Built for 'Aylestone Shipping Co. Ltd.', (Alexander Bros., the managers - 3 brothers it would appear, Thomas, George & a 3rd whose initial was I), of Newcastle. A site visitor's father was aboard the vessel in a 1924 voyage to the Gulf of Mexico. On Jul. 8, 1926, the vessel was wrecked at Praia do Leão, Fernando de Noronha Islands, Pernambuco, Brazil, while en route, it is believed, from Rosario, Argentina, to U.K. & the Continent, with a cargo of maize. In bad weather, it would appear, when in the dark sector of the Ilha da Rata lighthouse ('Entrou no setor escuro do farol da Rata'). Can anyone explain those words? The islands, volcanic in origin, comprise an archipelago in the S. Atlantic, 220 miles off Natal, Brazil. Any loss of life? WWW data is minimal. Have not spotted the exact wreck location but it would be at or about 03.88S/32.43W. Ms. Marta Granville, of Brazil, who photographed the wreck at 1, would know. A model of the vessel is on display at 'St. Margaret's Museum', at St. Margaret's Bay, Dover, Kent, U.K. José Carlos Silvares, of Brazil, is in process of writing a book about Brazilian shipwrecks. If you have additional data about Aylestone, perhaps an image, I will gladly pass the data on to him. Can you add to the record?
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking), 2 (ref. sinking 1918, Hatasu), 3 (sinking, Sefton Steamship), 4 (Sefton liquidation), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 107.5 metres, perpendicular to perpendicular, speed? Built, it would appear, for 'Sefton Steamship Co. Ltd.' ('Sefton'), of Liverpool, H. E. Moss & Co. the owners & managers. Which is a puzzle, because Sefton would seem to have been liquidated in Feb. 1909. That company was either resurrected or, more likely, another company was formed of the identical name. Possibly owned by Moss Steamship Co. Ltd., of Liverpool, however. (Another Hatasu, also 'Moss' related, was built by 'Blumer', in 1921). On Sep. 27, 1918, while en route from Alexandria, Egypt, to Liverpool, with a cargo of cotton, currants & onions, the vessel was hit by a torpedo fired by UB-49, Oberleutnant zur See Adolf Ehrensberger in command, 50 miles N3/4W of Oran, Algeria, at 36.32N/00.53W. 2 lives lost. Have not read the circumstances. Can you provide more data about the vessel?
A cargo ship. Which had a very short life indeed. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking), 2 (wreck data), 3 (UB-57), 4 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). About 113 metres long. Built for 'Moss Steamship Co. Ltd.' (J. Moss), of Liverpool & completed in Mar. 1918. It must have been completed early in that month because on Mar. 19, 1918, defensibly armed, in ballast & en route from Cherbourg, France, to Barry Roads, Wales, via Weymouth, the vessel was torpedoed by UB-57 & sank. Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Lohs, who sunk 77 ships & damaged many more, was in command of UB-57. At 50.16.9N/01.36.6W, 27 miles SWxS of St. Catherine’s Point, Isle of Wight. Wreck lies in 62 metres of water. All 40 crew were saved. Can you provide additional information? An image?
98 . War Coppice
3124 (or 3297) tons
A refrigerated cargo ship. Per 1 (War Coppice), 2 (United Baltic, Baltraffic), 3 ('convoyweb.org', WW2 convoy duty, click on 'SHIP SEARCH' then insert Baltraffic, but I cannot check the link), 4 (image, Baltraffic), 5 (New Zealand), 6 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 331 ft. (101.0 metres) long, speed of 11 1/2 knots. Built for The Shipping Controller, of London & managed for them by Morel Ltd. The vessel was sold, in 1919, to the French Government, & renamed Nord, a vessel name not referenced by Miramar. It was sold again, in 1920, to 'Compagnie Maritime de Transports Frigorifiques', of Lorient, France, & renamed Réfrigérant. A 1932 reference to S. Behr & Matthew Ltd., of London - perhaps the new managers? The vessel was sold, in 1933, to United Baltic Corporation Limited, of London & Newcastle, & renamed Baltraffic. In Jan/May 1940, the vessel supplied the British Expeditionary Force in France with refrigerated meat (5 return trips from Bristol Channel to River Loire). 12 convoy references in early WW2, incl. the 10 already mentioned. The vessel left Milford Haven on Sep. 24, 1940 for Auckland, New Zealand ('NZ'). There, as Baltraffic, managed by Union Steamship Co., the vessel visited Auckland, 35 times between Nov. 1940 & Apl. 1946 (but its role then was to carry refrigerated cargo from smaller ports to the main ports in NZ). The vessel was sold for the last time, in 1951, to Pan-Islamic Steamship Company Limited, of Karachi, Pakistan, & renamed Safina-E-Tariq. The vessel arrived at Karachi, probably at nearby Gadani Beach, in Q1 of 1957, to be broken up. Anything you can add? Was it a refrigerated ship when built?
99 . . War Highway
A dry cargo ship. And a survivor - in service for 60 years! Per 1 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.0 metres long perpendicular to perpendicular, speed of 11 1/2 knots. Built for The Shipping Controller, of London. The vessel was sold, in 1919, to Hartlepool Seatonia Steamship Co. Ltd., of West Hartlepool, & renamed Seatonia. It was sold again, in 1927, to J. E. Murrell S.S. Co. Ltd., also of West Hartlepool, & renamed Bracondale. And sold in 1934 to Sovtorgflot, of Russia & renamed Beresina (transliterated). In 1936 the owner was recorded as being the U.S.S.R. In 1950 the vessel was transferred to Sovromtransport, of Romania. And in 1959 transferred to NAVROM Romanian Maritime and Fluvial Navigation, of Romania & rebuilt. Name re-translated as Berezina. In 1962, the vessel was renamed Eforie. Jun. 6, 1975 was the date of its last reported movement passing Istanbul. The vessel was laid-up, at Constanţa, Romania, & in Apl. 1978 was reported due to be broken up there. But it would seem it lay derelict on the Macin Channel near the mouth of the Danube near Brăila, Romania, & still did so as late as 2005. And maybe it still is there in 2011? Much of the above data originated with two 'teesships' pages maintained by Ron Mapplebeck - but such pages are no longer available, alas.
100 War Sky
3116 (or 3072) tons
A cargo ship. Per 1 ('uboat.net', sinking, Thurston image), 2 [War Sky (2)], 3 (sinking, Thurston), 4 (image Thurston, but you must be registered to see it), 5 (Miramar, link, you now must be registered to access). 101.0 metres long, speed of 11 1/2 knots. Built for The Shipping Controller, of London. In 1919, the vessel was sold to Hartlepool Seatonia Steamship Co. Ltd., of West Hartlepool, (Hessler & Co., the managers), & renamed Vera Kathleen. In 1927, the vessel was sold to Murrell Steamship Co. (Joseph E. Murrell & Son the managers), both of West Hartlepool & renamed Thurston. In early Mar. 1940, Thurston, unescorted, was en route from Takoradi, Dakar, Ghana, to Workington, Cumberland, with a cargo of manganese ore. Shortly after midnight on Mar. 3, 1940, Thurston collided with S.N.A. 1, a French steamer, (also Sunderland built), about 60 miles S. of Milford Haven. S.N.A. 1 sank. 31 of its crew members were taken aboard Thurston. 'At 05.23 hours on 4 Mar, 1940', Thurston was hit by a single torpedo from U-29, Korvettenkapitän Otto Schuhart in command, & sank within a minute. At 50.23N/5.49W, 32 miles W. by N. of Trevose Head (North Cornish coast). 64 died (Master + 33 from Thurston & 30 ex S.N.A. 1) while 4 survived (3 ex Thurston & 1 ex S.N.A. 1). The 3 were picked up by Moyle & landed at Cardiff. The 1 ex S.N.A. 1 was saved by a fishing trawler. Do you have more data?
There are more (later) vessels built by 'Blumer' on the 2nd 'Blumer' page available here.
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