THE SUNDERLAND SITE - PAGE 021
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The following text has been kindly written for the site by Len Charlton.
Jack Crawford was born on Mar. 22, 1775 at Pottery Bank in Sunderland's East End. In an impoverished row of old houses divided into small lodging rooms which ran right down to the river where Jack's father worked as a 'keelman'. The young child helped on the keels but as more staiths started loading coal directly into ships, the use of keelboats was decreasing.
At right is said to be the very building in which Jack Crawford was born. In the corner room of the building at right. In an artist's 1888 view which surely made the street & building look almost gentile - which I am quite sure it was not!
So at 11 years of age Jack found work on the S.S. Peggy, a small coaster out of South Shields.
He was no stranger to the taverns and pubs that lined the Sunderland quays and which kept up a roaring trade with passing seamen as well as locals. Soon Jack became a rough experienced sailor, a prize for the Royal Navy. The narrow alleys running between High Street East and the river Wear at Low Street offered rich pickings for the Navy then involved in the French Revolutionary Wars & in 1796 Jack was press-ganged after a night's drinking in Low Street.
The following year found Jack on the 74 gun HMS Venerable sailing into battle against the Dutch Fleet at Camperdown. The Dutch had joined the French in plans to invade Ireland & Scotland & a British force under Admiral Adam Duncan (1731/1804), which had been blockading the Dutch ships for some time, ran out of provisions. When he withdrew to refit, the Dutch, under Admiral de Winter, came out & Admiral Duncan gave chase to join battle 8 or 9 miles off the Dutch village of Camperdown.
The crew felt very proud because the Venerable was the Admiral's flag ship & leading the British fleet of 25 ships against the 24 Dutch ships. Although the number & weight of guns greatly favoured the British, much of the intense gunfire concentrated on the Venerable & early in the Oct. 11, 1797 battle the Venerable's mainmast was hit & the Admiral's flag no longer showed. A serious situation as lowering the flag was the signal to the fleet to surrender. I read that Duncan retrieved the flag himself & handed it to Ordinary Seaman Jack Crawford who volunteered to climb the mast to re-attach it. Jack Crawford struggled through the chaos, climbed the mast & nailed the flag back on while being a clear target himself.
After terrible damage to both fleets, the Dutch capitulated - which greatly enhanced Jack's story. Later reports of casualties varied but it is clear that in total over 2000 seamen were killed or maimed although Jack himself escaped serious injury. A cluster of splinters were driven right through his cheek, however, when a shot hit the mast near him.
At left above is an image of Jack Crawford in the Venerable rigging, ex a J. S. (John Singleton) Copley, R. A., painting. A good representation? Who knows! And Camperdown? It would seem to be, in fact, the English name for 'Kamperduin', low downs which separate the village of Kamp or Kampen from the North Sea. At 52.43.0N/04.39.0E, on the coast of North Holland. Places which I cannot track on my map today.
Following a victory parade in London, Jack was presented to King George III, and granted an annual Navy pension of £30. But the real welcome came from his home town when he returned in triumph to a great civic welcome.
Sunderland now had its own national hero and donations soon raised the money for a very large silver medal.
At right, I show you the Jack Crawford gravestone, erected in Holy Trinity Church in 1888, on the site of his pauper's grave of 1831.
Someday it may be possible to show on this page a good quality image of the silver medal that the citizens of Sunderland gave to their hero - something not now possible even though the medal is held in the collection of the Sunderland Museum.
But now we can show an early illustration of the medal, thanks to Len Charlton. The medal, presented to Jack Crawford in Mar. 1798, bears a shield with the arms of Sunderland supported by two sailors. With below, on a scroll, 'ORBIS EST DEI'. And 'THE TOWN OF SUNDERLAND TO JOHN CRAWFORD FOR GALLANT SERVICES ON OCT. 11th 1797'. The reverse includes 'DUNCAN & GLORY', above a scene of the action, with 'BRITISH VALOUR' below.
Len Charlton, suggests that in the illustration it perhaps 'looks more like pottery than silver'. I can see what he means. In 1860, the medal came into the possession of Lord Duncan's descendants among other memorials of the action. It was presented by Lord Camperdown to the City of Sunderland in Feb. 1888.
A larger image of the front face of the medal can be seen here. But a similar image of the rear of the medal seems not to be available. You might wish to see this 21+ minute video about Jack Crawford & the Battle of Camperdown.
The public adulation seems to have been Jack's undoing because the celebrating just didn't stop and, plied with free drink, his antics took over his life back in Sunderland's East End. Stories abound about this period including one of police trying to catch him, blind drunk and shouting abuse, while riding a pig down High Street. These stories may well have been exaggerated but certainly his life went rapidly downhill and the medal he always wore eventually disappeared. Jack always claimed to have lost it but it certainly reappeared in a pawnshop in Church Street.
By the time he was 50, the world he had known had completely changed. The HMS Venerable had been wrecked in 1884 on rocks off Torbay and the Navy was scrapping the old wooden sailing ships in favour of big heavy steam ironclads.
The river he had known as a child had been deepened & the quays where he had played were surrounded by new docks, shipyards & railways. He was now living in squalor in a tenement in Low Street, the subject of idle gossip rather than acclaim. Any free beer he was given was given for pity's sake rather than friendship.
This part of the East End was foul with sewage & rats & when in Oct. 1831 the great cholera epidemic started, it was believed to have originated from an infected ship arriving there. In such conditions the plague spread with devastating speed, Jack Crawford became one of the first victims, on Nov. 10, 1831, &, fame forgotten in the general panic, he was buried in a mass pauper's grave at the Holy Trinity Church.
At left above is an image of Jack Crawford's gravestone, erected in 1888, at Holy Trinity Church. And at right above is the text on its base. It is interesting to note that the actual flag which Crawford nailed to Venerable's mast graced Crawford's gravestone at its unveiling - lent for the occasion by the Earl of Camperdown, a descendant of Admiral Duncan. A plain blue flag, I understand. With some nail holes in it!
Jack seemed to have been forgotten but 50 years later there was a strange revival of interest in his life. This may well have been triggered by a number of critical opinions then being published about his day of glory.
It was said that he had been ordered to nail the flag back or alternatively that he had disobeyed orders to stay on the gun-deck or simply that 'he was blind drunk'. One local historian, James Corder, argued that he should have been court-martialled for deserting his post. Sunderland's Mayor was incensed & the citizens rallied to the defence of their Jackie & donations piled in to find his unmarked grave in order to erect a marble headstone. This was placed in East End's Holy Trinity churchyard in 1888 but the fund had been greatly oversubscribed so what was to be done with the surplus?
Mowbray Park had just been completed & at the south end, placed in a commanding position overlooking the town centre, there stood a fine monument to General Havelock flanked by two cannons. Havelock had been born near Sunderland & had won country-wide fame at the relief of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. Presented cloaked & in formal attire, sword by his side, he was joined in 1890 by a full size bronze statue of a young barefoot sailor in torn shirt & shorts nailing a flag to a ship's mast with the butt end of a revolver. Havelock would surely have approved, Sunderland's East Enders certainly did. Perhaps this is where the saying 'nailing your colours to the mast' came from, perhaps not, but Sunderland had not lost faith in its hero & now Jack Crawford had finally secured his place in its history.
Mar. 13, 2009
A mere detail, or an important part of the story perhaps, is what Jack used to re-affix the Admiral's flag to the remaining portion of the mast. I have read that 'all published accounts make out that the instrument used by the hero was a marling-spike, though there is a tradition Jack himself said that he used a horse-pistol'. The next image shows the statue at left, where he is using a pistol, & two earlier depictions of the scene & an amazingly thin mast. The image at right clearly shows the flag re-affixed with large headed nails & a marling spike in Jack's hands being used as a hammer. A 'marling spike' is, incidentally, an iron tool tapering to a point, with an eye in its head, used to separate the strands in splicing rope.
Now the webmaster has never enjoyed poetry, or most poetry at least. But he commends to you the following stirring verses that describe the whole event. I have not read who wrote them.We had battled all the morning, 'mid the never-ceasing hail
Of shot and shell and splinter, of cable-shred, and sail;
We had thrice received their onslaught, which we thrice had driven back,
And were waiting, calm and ready, for the last forlorn attack;
When the stainless flag of England, that has braved a thousand years,
Was shot clean from the masthead; and they gave three hearty cheers.
'Twas the purpose of a moment, and the bravest of our tars
Plunged headlong in the boiling surf, amid the broken spars;
He snatched the shot-torn colours, and wound them round his arm,
Then climbed upon the deck again, and stood there safe and calm
He paused but for a moment - for it was no time to stay -
Then leaped into the rigging that had yet survived the fray;
Higher yet he climbed and higher, till he gained a dizzy height,
And then turned and paused a moment to look down upon the fight.
Whistled wild the shots around him, as a curling, smoky wreath
Formed a cloudy shroud to hide him from the enemy beneath.
Beat his heart with proud elation as he firmly fixed his stand,
And again the colours floated as he held them in his hand.
Then with pistol deftly wielded, 'mid the battle's ceaseless blast,
Fastened there the colours firmly, as he nailed them to the mast;
Then, as if to yield him glory, the smoke-clouds cleared away -
And we sent him up the loudest cheer that reached his ear that day,
And, with new-born zeal and courage, dashed more boldly to the fight,
Till the day of battle ended in the triumph of the night.
In his text above, Len Charlton refers to the 'Jack Crawford' statue erected in Mowbray Park in 1890 - a full size bronze statue of a young barefoot sailor in torn shirt & shorts nailing a flag to a ship's mast with the butt end of a revolver. In Jun. 2011, a most unusual & rare item was sold via e-Bay - a framed invitation, on silk, to the public inauguration of that 'Percy Wood' statue. 'Rare as hens teeth' & 'definitely a museum piece' were the vendor's words, surely accurate on both counts. 18 x 14 cm. in size. It sold for GBP 95.00 or approximately U.S. $151.78.
The invitation reads as follows (all in block letters):-
JACK CRAWFORD MEMORIAL The Mayor of Sunderland (Chairman) & Committee request the favour of Mr .......... attendance on Easter Monday April 7th 1890. At the inauguration ceremony of the statue to be unveiled by the Earl of Camperdown supported by the Marquis of Londonderry K.G. & the Earl of Durham. The procession will assemble at the Barracks at 11 a.m., & proceed to the site on the park.
The next fine image was posted on the 'Sunderland in Pictures' archive on 'Facebook', by Matty Erskine, whom we sincerely thank. Matty's image at that location, of the brass plaque within Sunderland Holy Trinity Church in the east end of Sunderland, can be seen here.
An image of the Jack Crawford gravestone in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church - thanks to Keith Cockerill.
Data Sources. I trust that it is in order for the images which are shown above, to be included in this informational & non-profit website. If you are the copyright owner of any of the material included in this page, & would wish it removed, please be in touch & I will gladly remove it. But probably with some regret! And probably I would wish to try to replace the material from a source which is acceptable. You can contact me here.
i) 4 of the above images originate from four pages, 414 thru 417, within 'The Monthly Chronicle of North-Country Lore and Legend', 1888, published by Walter Scott at Newcastle, a 'Google' book, (thanks!), presumably now out of copyright. Since they are so interesting, I make those 4 pages available directly for site visitors to read.
Each thumbnail image next is 'clickable'.
I learn that Jack Crawford's exploit was also featured in a watercolour, heightened with white, by Sunderland born landscape & marine artist Clarkson Stanfield. The work is 16 1/2 x 13 inches in size or 42 x 33 cm. But .. it would seem that the artwork incorrectly depicts the wrong flag. It shows the Royal Standard being nailed to the mast stub, rather than the plain blue flag of Admiral Duncan.
ii) Sources of the other images? (2), (3), (4), (5) & (6). I cannot find (3) again!
I wonder how Jack supported himself back in Sunderland? Did he have a job? Does anybody know? I now learn that he was a keelman. A friend of the site understands that he read somewhere that Jack had helped his father, who was a keelman, working on the keels when he was a boy. Keelboats were large shallow-draught boats that were used to carry coal from staiths on the upper reaches of the Wear to collier ships waiting near the river mouth.
Paul Hockie, who believes that Jack Crawford was his great great great great grandfather, states (thanks Paul!) that Jack remained in the Navy until 1813 & that his youngest son, George Henry, was accepted into the Royal Naval Asylum at Greenwich - which 'Asylum', Paul advises, was more of an apprenticeship school than an 'asylum' as we use that word today.
A RECENT CELEBRATION OF THE LIFE OF JACK CRAWFORD.
The image which follows is of the title page of a small 22 page booklet about the life of Jack Crawford - written by Captain Edward Robinson & published in 1866 by J. D. Todd, of Sunderland. The book was written to encourage public contributions to permit, since none existed, a monument to be erected to honour Jack Crawford, Sunderland's hero son. The book would seem to be most rare. In 2004, a copy of the book was provided by the book's owner to the Sunderland Old Township Heritage Society, who were at the time organising a special 'Jack Crawford' event. Extracts from the book were, in fact, read at their event, which took place at Sunderland Holy Trinity Church. A gentleman called Ray Price dressed up as Jack Crawford & played Jack throughout the afternoon - the Sunderland Division of the Royal Navy Sea Cadets were also present. A wreath was finally laid in celebration of Jack's life at a spot close to the brass plaque which is shown above.
The book may well have helped the cause along but it took 22 more years before a monument was actually erected - in Oct. 1888. I should advise that the image of Jack, at left below, was a later addition to this particular copy of the booklet, added by a later owner. A few facts reported in the booklet, not already covered above :-
a) Some family details - Jack's father was a keelman on the Wear. Jack was married at St. Paul's Church, London, in 1808. John Crawford, his first son, was born at Deptford (London or Sunderland?) in 1810. Another son of Jack Crawford married Miss Rivett, sister to Mr. Rivett, a block-maker. Mr. Dinsdale, sail-maker, married Jack's daughter for his first wife. John Crawford, Jack's eldest son, was a keelman on the Tyne. He had one son & four daughters, all married in 1866 except for the youngest daughter. Jack had two more sons, George & William, both sailors. They both left Sunderland in or about 1844 and had not been heard from since. They possibly had gone to Australia.
b) Jack Crawford was the first man to die from cholera, on Nov. 9, 1831. November 10th is stated above. But he was not the first to die from the disease. The first victim was Betty Henry, the wife of a keelman.
c) Jack Crawford was present at the burial of Lord Nelson in 1806.
d) Len Charlton's text above refers to Jack's fine medal having reappeared in a pawnshop in Church Street. The booklet states what had happened to it along the way. It states that Jack pledged the medal & for 29 years it sat in 'Mrs Dunn's' before being redeemed. After Jack's father died, Jack had it again for a few months until his mother told him that she had more right to it than he did and that he would get it at her death. But he didn't. Robert Burdon Cay, an attorney, gave Jack's mother £5 for it. When Cay left Sunderland for the south, it was sold, also for £5, to James Moore. Upon James Moore's death it became the property of the Earl of Camperdown - who gave it to the City of Sunderland in Feb. 1888. There may, however, have been two gentleman named Moore in the sequence - the booklet refers also to it going to John Moore and then into the hands of another gentleman named Moore. It is all a bit confusing! The matter is covered in three separate places in the booklet.
e) Edward Dixon, of Pensher, offered to provide the stone for the proposed monument. I wonder whether it was his stone that was used in the construction of the later monument.
We still have a few little mysteries. i) The wrong flag is depicted in most of the Jack Crawford illustrations. The real one, i.e. the flag of Admiral Duncan, was plain blue in colour. ii) Did he use a marling spike or a revolver to nail the flag to the mast? The booklet refers to a marling spike. iii) A new thought from Keith Cockerill. Was Jack left or right handed? He is shown as both left and right handed in the various images & art works.
The Sunderland Division of the Royal Navy Sea Cadets, along with Ray Price, at left, who played the part of Jack Crawford at a 2004 Sunderland Old Township Heritage Society event.
In the late 18th century, the monarchies of many countries in Europe viewed with alarm the then political turmoil in France. In early 1793, a 'revolutionary government' tried & then executed Louis XVI of France, & France became at war with most of Europe. In 1792, France had declared war on Austria & a state of war soon existed with Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands & of course Great Britain. Napoleon Bonaparte, then an unknown artillery captain, came to first prominence at Toulon in 1793, & soon had major successful campaigns including invasions of Italy & Egypt. He seized power in France in 1799, & crowned himself Emperor in 1804. These periods in history are known as the French Revolutionary Wars (of roughly 1792 to 1802) & later the Napoleonic Wars (of roughly 1803 to 1812). I say roughly because there appears to be no complete agreement as to when the Revolutionary Wars ended & the Napoleonic Wars commenced. The wars ultimately came to an end with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 & Napoleon's final defeat on the field of Waterloo in Jun. 1815.
In 1795, the French seized the Netherlands & established a puppet state. Spain became an ally of France in 1796. A major objective of the French throughout the whole period was to invade Great Britain & in 1796 an unsuccessful French expedition was sent to invade Ireland. It never made it due to the bad storms the fleet encountered.
This is not the place to try to set out the most complicated history of the period, with its many leaders, campaigns, and changing alliances. For that I must refer you elsewhere. Suffice perhaps to say that many millions of lives were lost during the entire period. And that in 1797 Great Britain stood essentially alone against most of Europe.
While Sir John Jervis & Horatio Nelson had defeated the Spanish fleet at Cape St. Vincent on Feb. 14, 1797, the British Navy, the country's essential line of defence, was in total disarray. It had relatively few ships & there was open mutiny within the fleet which had deserted its officers & even blockaded the River Thames. The grievances it would seem were essentially reasonable - including, as an example, the fact that Navy personnel had not been paid for a period of two years. The French had meantime amassed some 30,000 troops in the Netherlands intending to mount a fresh expedition to Ireland. The Dutch fleet under Admiral de Winter was however unable to proceed westwards down the channel due to adverse winds & he was bottled up at Texel by a few vessels under the command of Admiral Adam Duncan (1731/1804), the Royal Navy Commander-in-Chief of the North Seas. Texel is, incidentally, an island 3 km. off the Dutch coast at the point where the Dutch fleet would emerge into the North Sea.
Duncan (at right) was surely the right person in command at such a difficult time. He was a Scotsman, a giant of a man, 6 ft. 4 in. in height & massively built. 67 years of age at the time of the engagement. A leader of men most certainly & a great seaman who both earned & commanded the respect of his men.
In the words of William H. Fitchett, 'Duncan was a Scotchman, and he possessed in a high degree all the characteristic virtues of his race: sense, force, gravity, an iron steadiness of nerve, and an unsentimental but absolutely flawless devotion to duty.'
Fitchett also described him as having very little imagination.
The webmaster does not pretend to have done extensive research into the history, but that last comment seems to be somewhat unkind. The Dutch had 23 ships of war ready to proceed to Brest with their troops & invade Ireland in support of a planned rebellion there. Or, maybe invade Ireland having first landed at Edinburgh & proceeded via Glasgow. Duncan was charged with keeping the Texel closed & he had just a few ships, 2 or maybe 4 of them, to do that. He anchored 2 of his ships at the narrow channel that permitted but a single vessel to pass through. And when the winds denied the ability of the Dutch to exit at all, he drew out into the North Sea & sent signals to a non-existent British fleet supposedly just over the horizon. The imaginary fleet & Duncan exchanged messages back & forth (how interesting!) & the Dutch may well have been duped into thinking that the entire British fleet lay close beyond the skyline. Very little imagination?
Admiral Jan Willem de Winter (Mar. 23, 1761/Jun. 02, 1812, image at left)? Was he an Admiral, or a Vice-Admiral - I have read both? He started life, I read, as a sailor, had joined the French army & risen to the rank of General. He then had transferred back to the Navy as an Admiral, having never before commanded a ship, even in peacetime. 36 years old at the time of the engagement.
The practicalities of war demanded that the forces of both sides be provisioned. But, after so long a period bottled up, the Dutch fleet ran out of provisions for the assembled troops & morale was low. In Sep. 1797, Duncan himself took his ships to Yarmouth to revictual. While the Dutch had by then abandoned the thought of invading Ireland that year, it being too late in the season. Admiral de Winter was ordered to engage the British fleet with the first favourable wind & on Oct. 6, 1797, the Dutch fleet emerged. 21 ships & four brigs, manned by over 7,000 sailors.
The open mutiny was now history & when fast vessels brought the news to Duncan that the Dutch were at sea, he rushed back to engage them. With a fleet of 24 ships.
They met on Oct. 11, 1797, 8 or 9 miles off the Dutch coast, off 'Kamperduin', low downs which separate the village of Kamp or Kampen from the North Sea. Spectators lined the shore watching the battle. While the two fleets were almost even in numbers, the British had the advantage of having heavier ships, more powerful guns & better trained crews.
The British attacked in some haste to prevent the Dutch from reaching shallow waters in which the British would run aground & the Dutch might safely return to Texel. The Dutch were headed north east in a single column, (perhaps 2 columns with the smaller ships closer to the shore) while the British fleet split into two columns to meet them, the easternmost column being led by Admiral Duncan in Venerable, the western column being under the command of Vice-Admiral Richard Onslow in Monarch, both ships being of 74 guns. The British broke through the Dutch lines in two places & Duncan engaged de Winter's flagship, the Vrijheid, also of 74 guns. Soon the fleets were engaged in fierce combat, both firing into the hulls of their opponents & inflicting major damage on one-another.
Early in the battle, the top gallant mast of Admiral Duncan's ship was blown away & his blue flag no longer flew. Duncan retrieved his flag himself from the debris on the deck. Not showing the flag would be seen as a sign of surrender. So Jack Crawford climbed the rigging & re-affixed it.
Now when the webmaster first saw the image above, of a painting by J. S. (John Singleton) Copley, R. A., he thought it would be the source of the image of Jack Crawford as depicted in the line drawing at the very top left of this page. But that is not so. I presume that Copley must have painted the scene on more than one occasion. Anyway, in the wonderful above image, Copley shows the scene on the Venerable when Admiral de Winter at left surrendered his sword to Admiral Adam Duncan receiving it at right.
But here is the 'other' Copley painting, which indeed shows Jack Crawford in the rigging at left top. It comes from a wonderful 'The Athenaeum' website that has images of 117 Copley artworks. This image can be found on this page. And would seem to be a reproduction of the original. Their fine image, even larger than I show below, can be viewed here. And through that page you may acquire your very own reproduction of the 'Copley' work.
The battle lasted for 2 1/2 to 3 hours & is described as the bloodiest and hardest-fought of the war's battles. 193 British were killed in the action as were 511 of the Dutch. The Dutch had more wounded also - 922 compared with the British fleets 622. And, while a number of Dutch vessels (11) did escape, the Dutch lost 11 of their ships as prizes, mostly so damaged as to be in truth mere wrecks. Two of them sank, indeed, while being taken back to England.
A remarkable fact of the battle was that neither Duncan nor de Winter were hit during the action. Both were physically large men & surely must have been most prominent on deck in their fine uniforms, (though I note in passing that de Winter is not of a consistent height in the two 'Copley' works shown above). Admiral de Winter, in fact, fought until he was the sole unwounded man on the deck of Vrijheid which at the end had her masts over her sides & her decks red with blood. He tried to escape in a small boat but was taken prisoner aboard Venerable. That evening Duncan & de Winter played whist in Duncan's cabin. Admiral de Winter lost the game & is said to have observed 'It is rather hard to be beaten twice in one day by the same opponent'.
Admiral de Winter was taken to England, was freed in Dec. 1797 in an exchange & was held in a later court martial to 'have nobly maintained the honour of the Dutch flag.' He was buried in the Panthéon, in Paris, or most of him was. His heart was enclosed in an urn and placed in the Bovenkerk church at Kampen. Is that the same Kampen? There is, I see, a large Dutch, more inland, city also of the name.
And Admiral Duncan? He was awarded the Large Naval Gold Medal & a pension of £3,000 per year, a substantial sum indeed. He was given the freedom of several cities, including Dundee & London. He was created 1st Viscount Duncan of Camperdown & awarded the lands which are now Camperdown country park & mansion. He was also made Baron Duncan of Lundie, his family home on the Perthshire-Angus border. On Aug. 4, 1804, he died at age 73. He is buried in the churchyard at Lundie.
The battle was a decisive battle indeed, but in history the battle has been overshadowed perhaps by the later naval successes (including the Battle of Trafalgar) of Lord Nelson.
There would seem to be a great many paintings of the Battle of Camperdown. Painted by various artists over the years. Just a couple of them are next. The first, available via shafe.co.uk shows the Venerable with Admiral Duncan's blue flag a-flying. The second, a more subdued painting of the scene after the battle was over, is attributed to Robert Allan Roe. Available from here.
I trust that it is in order for the images which are shown above, to be included in this informational & non-profit website. If you are the copyright owner of any of the material included in this page, & would wish it removed, please be in touch & I will gladly remove it. But probably with some regret! And probably I would wish to try to replace the material from a source which is acceptable. You can contact me here.
Sources of the 'Battle of Camperdown' images? (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13).
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