May I suggest that you navigate the site via the index on page 001.PRIOR PAGE / NEXT PAGE

Do you want to make a comment? A site guestbook is here. Test.

To search for specific text on this page, just press 'CTRL + F' & then enter your search term. A general site search facility is here.

On this page I will advise such data as I have located about many subjects, until such time as sufficient data is assembled to create specific pages in the particular area. As for other pages on this site, this page IS a work in progress!

On this page, today, in no particular sequence ... map or maps, artworks, Seaburn images, Winter Gardens image, Ayres Quay Bottle Company, The surgeons of Ayres Quay Villa, Smith's Ltd. jewellers etc., HMS Arrow, St. Peter's Church, Drury & Son, Ford Paper Mill, Steam Tugs Biddick & Roker, Finchale Priory, a Sunderland Church, Whitburn village.


The first such map comes from a volume entitled 'Atlas of British Social and Economic History since c.1700', by Rex Pope. Here. A Google book.

I should indicate that the map seems to contain an error. It shows the main Pickersgill yard (William Pickersgill and Sons Ltd.) in what I believe is the wrong spot. That yard was, I think, to the west (left) of Queen Alexandra Bridge & not to the east of it (right of the bridge) as depicted in the map. None-the-less the map is most informative.


What follows is, at left of course, a watercolour of Sunderland Harbour, painted by Molly Davison in about 1890. It is signed and 36 x 54 cm. in size. The work was part of a lot of two watercolours by the artist that was for sale at a Stride & Son (of Chichester, Sussex) auction held on Jan. 27, 2007. At right, I show a map section which shows, I believe, exactly where the artist sat to paint her picture. She sat, I believe, on the point of land where 'slipway' is marked at the top of the map section. And looked south-west. Long Bank would be the road rising up to the left away from the river. Low Quay is at left (with the 'Gridiron' hidden by high tide) and Bowe's Quay and the other quays stretch away into the distance. A rather larger painting by Thomas Hemy, painted also at that very same spot, is in the Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens in Sunderland. A thumbnail of his work and a link to the page where you can zoom in on the work is here.

And next, a pair of Sunderland images, of works by the prolific artist L. S. (Lawrence Stephen) Lowry (1887/1976). Lowry was a Manchester artist, who, I read, created some 10,000 works in his lifetime. What an amazing achievement! An extensive Wikipedia biography is here. But there are many biographies elsewhere. Now there are more Lowry works that depict Sunderland, since it was, I read, a favorite holiday destination for the artist.

The 1961 work at left below, entitled 'River Wear at Sunderland' was shown at the Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens in Sunderland from Jan. to Jul. 2003. The work at right, entitled 'Sunderland Docks' was, I believe, painted at about the same time. A third Sunderland image, a 1962 work entitled 'Dockside Sunderland' was, I read, purchased by Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens in 2004, as per this page. Lowry prints are widely available for purchase, I understand.


With sources as follows:

First below is an image of Seaburn Beach in the early 1900s, i.e. the Edwardian era. Provided (thanks so much!) by Meg Hartford. It comes, Meg advises, from an old album of photos of Sunderland & Roker produced by Valentine and Sons Ltd., postcard vendors of course, of Dundee & London. A larger version of the image can be seen here. Second below is a fine e-Bay item that sold in mid Jan. 2007, for GBP 5.15 or approximately U.S. $10.18. A beauty indeed! Of Seaburn beach. In the 1920s or 1930s perhaps? Fair is fair. I commend & thank 'bluebells-curios' of the U.K., the vendor of the item, for the regular outstanding quality of their listing images. And third below, another image of the beach at Seaburn, this image having kindly been provided by Steve of e-Bay vendor 'sallen1960', of Norway. The image of the River Wear bucket dredger was provided by Clive Ketley.



A long established bottle works indeed, 'Ayres Quay Bottle Company' was established, I read, in about 1723. It was operated by various owners & finally from c.1869 to 1923 by Laing, Horn, Scott and Co.  In 1942, it would seem that it vanished for good when Sir James Laing built a new shipbuilding berth on the site.

I understand that an image of the bottle works exists but I have not yet come across it. Maybe, however, the image referred to is the image now shown lower on this page. I can however offer the following, featuring a paperweight sold via e-Bay in early Nov. 2009. And both sides of a token for what seems to be essentially the same enterprise.

An eBay item in Sep. 2014 offered a 'blob top beer bottle' with a clock face on the front that says William Noble and hands pointing 10 to 12, also marked W. Noble & Co., Heywood. Marked on the back Ayres Quay Bottle Co. Sunderland.

The term 'Ayres Quay' encompassed a large amount of territory. I read also that R. Pemberton operated glassworks there, on the ballast hills, from about 1802 to 1853 & that the business continued under other owners until 1881. Also at Ayres Quay, it would seem between the years of 1846 & 1868, was the ship building yard of John Robinson. And W. H. Pearson was building ships there also, in 1852 or thereabouts. And Wm. Richard Abbay also, in the period of 1847 thru 1856. And who knows how many more?


In a guestbook message you can read here, Tracey Finnamore refers to her ancestors having lived at Ayres Quay Villa, apparently located close to the quayside there. Tracey refers to two surgeons whose practice was located there i.e. Jonathan Shaw & William Candlish. I have invited Tracey or others who have knowledge of the history to write a few words about the doctors & their practice. It would seem that Jonathan Shaw, born on Mar. 16, 1818, died on Aug. 3, 1877 after serving as a surgeon & a general practitioner for over 25 years. His wife Mary (1822/1896) was Mary Candlish before marriage. I cannot spot quickly any WWW references to William Candlish, surgeon.

Tracey has now completed the article which follows, which article was prepared with the help & support of 'Living History North East'. In her wide-ranging article, Tracey talks about her family ancestors including those who provided medical services from offices in Ayres Quay Villa for many decades.

What was & where was Ayres Quay Villa? The building is believed to have been a single family residence, likely of two stories, located 'on a rise' with outbuildings, to the immediate W. of the Ayres Quay Bottle Company works. Marked, at top left, in the following 1860 map.


I have been learning about my family history and as with many people have found connections to various parts of the UK. My family are from Scotland and the Orkney Isles through to Northumberland, Yorkshire, Derbyshire & Leicestershire. The part of my family from Sunderland arrived there from Scotland & Yorkshire in 1822. My Mum knew some information about the past and there being family members who were doctors as well as an MP in Sunderland. Being a retired nurse, I was very interested to discover more about the doctors in the family.

My story starts with Robert Candlish (1786/1840), born in 1786 at Bellingham, Northumberland, to a farmer named John Candlish. In 1807. Robert married Penelope McCaulay, born in 1784 at Dumbarton, Scotland. They are my four times Great Grandparents.

Robert had found employment in the glass industry locally in Dumbartonshire. They were to have five children; the first four children, i.e. John, Elizabeth & William, were born in Greenock, Renfrewshire, & Jane was born in Seaton Sluice, Northumberland. The family moved around in support of Robert’s work as a glass manufacturer, with a final move to Sunderland in 1822. There Robert took up work as manager of 'Ayres Quay Bottle Company', a position he held until his death in 1840. And the family settled into Ayres Quay Villa, where Mary, Robert & Penelope's last child, was born. Mary Candlish is my three times Great Grandmother.

Immediately above, a view of the busy 'Ayres Quay Bottle Company' site in 1885.


Ayres Quay Bottle Company was a long established & prominent U.K. manufacturer of bottles & had two locations. Its main location, at Ayres Quay, Deptford, Sunderland, had its own riverside quay, coal yard & salt pans. That such facilities were extensive, you can see from the fine 1885 image shown above. (Their other location was on the S. bank of the River Wear to the west of the road bridge)

There were also, at Ayres Quay, workers’ houses and gardens: from, ‘An Eye Plan of Sunderland and Bishopwearmouth 1785-1790’ by John Rain; a reproduction by Clay, Milburn and Miller, Living History North East, 2014).

Ayres Quay Villa is the building within the area marked in green on the 'Godfrey' Ordnance Survey map section shown at left. 

So Robert and Penelope Candlish were living, from 1822, at Ayres Quay Villa in Deptford, adjacent to the bottle works. Their second son William Candlish (1810/1842) became a ‘surgeon’, the title given to physicians in that era. He qualified as a physician in 1831 and set up practice at Ayres Quay Villa as is stated in the following advert in the 'Sunderland Herald' newspaper of Jul. 30, 1831.

William Candlish Surgeon begs to intrude that he has commenced practice as a surgeon at Ayres Quay Villa.

Dr. William Candlish, then only 21 years old & newly qualified, found himself in the middle of the first recorded cholera outbreak in Sunderland. An 1834 paper written by Dr. J. B. Kell entitled, 'The Appearance of Cholera at Sunderland in 1831', reports on how some people suspected of having cholera were quarantined at Deptford. This must have been very close to William Candlish’s practice. Dr. Kell, who had come across cholera before in his career as a Regimental Surgeon, was convinced that this was the start of a cholera outbreak in Sunderland but the symptoms appeared ambiguous to other doctors in the area as they could have indicated many other illnesses. Indeed during a Health Board meeting in the town many doctors are quoted as saying that they did not think there was an outbreak of cholera or that it was contagious. Dr. William Candlish, who was in his first few months of practice, agreed with them & said in the meeting, '…this disease is not contagious but has arisen spontaneously'.

As time went on, the Senior Doctor of the Board, Dr. Clanny, agreed that the disease was cholera & began work with Dr. J. B. Kell to establish practices which would control the disease.

By 1835 William had become well established & his practice as a Surgeon was warmly recognised by his many patients.

There were other doctors who joined the practice at Ayres Quay Villa, including a Dr. Fraser and a Dr. Crey.

Sadly, within a few years, William Candlish became chronically ill with tuberculosis. He died, at the young age of 41, at Ayres Quay Villa, in 1842. A notice regarding his death appeared in the Durham County Advertiser on Dec. 23, 1842. The family were to suffer many losses from 1840 onwards.

Robert and Penelope Candlish were to see two of their other children die as young adults. Prior to William dying, but no doubt whilst he was ill, their oldest son John Candlish had died on Mar. 16, 1840 of tuberculosis at age 32, & 3 days later, on Mar. 19, 1840, Jane Thompson (nee Candlish) was to die from ‘fever and infection’ days after childbirth. There is no mention or record of a baby surviving. The sadness in the house was to continue with the death of Robert himself a couple of months later, in May 1840, of ‘bowel inflammation’. Penelope had lost a husband, a son, a daughter &  a grandchild, all in the space of a couple of months.

Ayres Quay Villa must have been an unhealthy place to live. The building was surrounded by glass works, brick works, iron foundries, ship builders & bulk freight movement from the quays. The quayside would have been a crowded environment, experiencing major industrial pollution from smoke, particulates & noxious gases. Accidents must have happened frequently. This was a socially poor area with overcrowded housing & the deprivation this brings. However, as with most working class areas, there does seem to have been a strong community feeling. On a visit to the Salt Grass pub, I was told by local people that there was once a pub on every street corner in Sunderland.

In terms of public health, Sunderland, appears to have had a growing support system with wealthy business owners giving subscriptions to a Board of Health to assist the community. Also some workers, recognising a possible future need, donated small contributions from their wages into accident and/or health care funds, for example, ‘The Society of Keelmen on the River Wear’. This was to provide them with hospital and aftercare following accidental misfortunes. Any doctor would have had their work cut out in such an environment.

Mary was Robert and Penelope's youngest offspring. She had been born at Ayres Quay Villa in 1822. In 1844 she has met & married Dr. Jonathan Shaw, my three times Great Grandfather, who was also to carry on a practice as a surgeon at Ayres Quay Villa.

Dr. Shaw, originally from Bowes, Yorkshire, had trained at Guys Hospital in London. He was to serve his apprenticeship with Dr. Roberts, a noted Gateshead physician. Maybe he had met William Candlish in medical circles before being introduced to his sister Mary and moving to Sunderland?

Mary and Jonathan were to have nine children at Ayres Quay Villa between 1845 and 1859 with two children dying in infancy. Their son Jonathan Shaw junior is my Great Great grandfather. His grandmother Penelope Candlish continued to live with the family until her death in 1875, at the age of 91, no doubt as the strong matriarch she must have been to them all.

Immediately above, c.1860 images of Jonathan Shaw & his wife Mary Candlish Shaw.

In the above family photograph, Mary & Dr. Jonathan Shaw are in the front row, with, to their left, the youngest family member Thomas Laidman Shaw. My Great Great grandfather Jonathan Shaw junior, the bewhiskered gentleman at right in the top row, is between Mary Jane & Elisabeth Penelope. The other three brothers are William Candlish Shaw, John Laidman Shaw & Robert Candlish Shaw, but I am unsure at this point as to which is which in the photograph. This picture was taken around 1874 when they were all still living at Ayres Quay Villa.

Jonathan continued to work as a surgeon. He had a position as a Union District Medical Officer for the Board of Health & was to visit some of the suffering children murdered by the infamous Mary Ann Cotton in 1867! He was nominated to become an MP in 1854, but was not elected. He completed 30 years in medical practice in Sunderland before succumbing to ‘gastric symptoms and paralysis’ - which killed him, at 59 years of age, in 1877. There are references to him in the newspapers of the day suggesting that he was both well respected & an important member of the community.

Robert Candish (1786/1840) had a sister Mary Candlish born in 1790 and a brother John Candlish junior born in 1793. John Candlish junior was to go on to have his own son named John Candlish (1816/1874) who became a Sunderland alderman & later, for many years, a Member of Parliament for Sunderland. John Candlish junior was also involved in managing glass houses.  His son John Candlish, along, initially, with partner Robert Greenwell, acquired the lease to Seaham Bottle Works, at nearby Seaham of course. Such works, later renamed Londonderry Bottle Works, became the largest glass-bottle works in Britain.

To the best of my knowledge, Ayres Quay Villa was lived in by the Candlish/Shaw family from 1822 until 1896. The Villa was no longer mentioned in the 1901 census & does not appear in aerial photographs taken later on. The building was on a raised area, had its own plot of land with ‘out -houses’. I am not 100% certain excatly where the house is on the main photograph of the Ayres Quay Bottle Co. works above but I think the Villa is the building that is just visible behind the central chimney stacks (the stack with two together). I would love to have more conclusive evidence that the house in that photograph IS Ayres Quay Villa. And would like to find a better photograph of the building.

Tracey Finnamore
May 2021


Tracey Finnamore, image at left, is currently researching her family history & writing a book for her children so that they can appreciate their personal heritage & to ensure that important information isn’t lost to them forever.

Tracey is also looking to share further writing & parts of her future book with the 'Donnison School Heritage and Education Centre' in Sunderland's East End. And with that organisation's 'Living History' Members. Look out for more of this fascinating history on Living History North East & on the their web site on Facebook.

If you have more information on Ayres Quay Villa or any member of Tracey’s family, do contact Stacey directly. Or alternatively advise the webmaster, who will ensure that all data received is passed onwards.


In Nov. 2009, what is entitled 'memo from' but would seem to be, in fact, a receipt, issued on Aug. 23, 1924 by 'Smiths Ltd.', Watchmakers, Jewellers, Silversmiths & Opticians, of 279 High Street, Sunderland, was offered via e-Bay. For a gold & diamond ring. A visually most interesting receipt, as I trust you will agree, which bears two 1 penny stamps. The item sold for U.S. 9.99.


A first day cover re HMS Arrow, a vessel which was 'adopted' by the City of Sunderland, when it was commissioned in Jul. 1976. The vessel, F173, was a Royal Navy Type 21 frigate, 384 ft. long, with a speed of 32 knots. It was not built by a Sunderland shipbuilder, rather it was built by Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd., of Glasgow, Scotland. She was well armed - with a 4.5 inch naval gun, 2 20 mm cannon, 4 'Exocet' & a single 'Sea Cat SAM' missiles, even two torpedo tubes. And a chaff launcher (whatever that is). With a ship's complement of 177. You can read about the vessel here.

The vessel served with distinction in the Falklands War of Apl. 2 thru Jun. 14, 1982.

By the mid 1980s the vessel was suffering - from cracks in her hull. She had to be extensively repaired, & was fitted with steel plates to strengthen the vessel's hull & superstructure. She served until Mar. 1, 1994 when she was decommissioned. That is not the end of her story, far from it. The vessel was transferred to Pakistan, & served in the Pakistani Navy as PNS Khaibar. It would seem that she may well still be in service for Pakistan as this item is added to the page in Aug. 2011.

A souvenir booklet was published in 1976 to celebrate the Commissioning of HMS Arrow. Of 15 pages. Now, thanks to the kindness of David Bell, we are able to present the entire booklet. The cover first & then all of the other pages, excluding the inside front cover which is blank. A copy of the booklet was e-Bay available in early 2013, in an item which included 2 invitations to attend the Commissioning Ceremony & 2 copies of 'The Ceremony and Order of Service'. It sold for GBP 10.09 or U.S. $16.18,

Each thumbnail image below is 'clickable'. And each image you come to is also 'clickable'.


Alan Vickers advises that the current (2011) adopted ship is HMS Ocean. And here, thanks to David Sloan, is a fine image of HMS Ocean, which in late May 2012, as this page was updated, was visiting Sunderland for a few days.

HMS Ocean visited Sunderland again in 2015. David Sloan's fine images below show HMS Ocean leaving Sunderland on May 4, 2015.

HMS Glasgow visited the city in Jul. 1955. A ball was held on Jul. 14, 1955. Was it perhaps, also a Sunderland adopted ship?


Most of an 1785 print of St. Peters Church, Monks Weremouth, Durham, which print was published by S. Hooper & engraved by J. Newton.


It is probably unlikely that the material that follows will be expanded into extensive coverage of St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth ( 1904 image). Even though the venerable church surely merits extended coverage due to its history of many centuries - built back in 674 AD, just a little before my time! The subject is, I know, well covered elsewhere already.  But ... the webmaster is a pack-rat, as you may have gathered,  & when he spots material of quality he finds it difficult to resist giving it a place in these pages.

This section started, in fact, as a result of seeing an e-Bay item of great quality, an item that sold for what seems to me to be the quite modest price of GBP 5.99. Covered next.

A fine lithograph of the tower of St. Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth, ex 'The Building News' of Nov. 15, 1872 - 13 x 8 1/2 inches in size, printed by Whiteman & Bass, of London. An e-Bay item that sold on Oct. 9, 2012. We thank U.K. vendor 'yelesomniloc' for his wonderful listing image - do drop by his store to view the current listings. Note: I have slightly modified the listing image for better presentation on this page - a bigger version of the print can be seen here. Sunderland Public Libraries are, I should note, to be commended for making another image of the lithograph available via Flickr.

And next a splendid image of the church thanks to Sunderland Public Libraries - who make the image available via Flickr here. A giant image of very great beauty. The image, in black & white, was, I see, published in an 1885 issue of 'Illustrated London News' as per an e-Bay item in Nov. 2012.

Next is the centre portion only of a limited edition etching by Walter Lishman (1903/1986), entitled 'Monkwearmouth circ 964-1964 A.D.' - ex an expired eBay item.

The interior of St. Peter's Church, before 1866, ex an expired eBay item.

The church would seem to have been altered considerably between 1872 & 1885. The entrance doorway in the base of the tower was removed, it would seem, & the top of the tower was materially changed also.

Vince Richardson has kindly advised as follows:-

I know the original entrance, known as Bede's Entrance, was the original Anglo-Saxon doorway which only existed as a 'porch' to the first level as seen on the etchings. This doorway seems to have been bricked up for some reason on the 1872 print. It would not have been 'removed', rather, due to its historical importance, just covered over to protect it from further decay. There is substantial alteration to the top of the tower, but seeing as this was a much later addition it is probably not of the same historical importance as the original early medieval porch & doorway. I did find this following reference to the 1875 restoration in a 'pdf' available here:-

'The tower porch is the most ancient part of the building, and the crumbling structure underwent much needed restoration in 1875, at a cost of £7,190.'

This doorway is still protected by an iron railing & is now only used when showing visitors to this historic site, so no one gets to use it on a daily basis. A much later built side door (12th Century?) now acts as the church’s main entrance.

Vince, we thank you!

Probably more imagery to follow in due course, as time & energy permit. Should any site visitor wish to contribute to this section, a summary history of the church perhaps, your effort would be welcomed.

I think that I am correct in saying that 'The Antiquaries Journal' of 1970, Volume 1, Part II, contains 9 pages re the church's 'Decorated window-glass and millefiori' (a technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware). Written by Rosemary Cramp, F.S.A.


At left below is a postcard image of the store of 'Drury & Son', haberdashers, of MacKies corner, Sunderland. MacKie's corner is where Fawcett & Bridge Streets cross High Street, the corner being named after a silk top hat maker named 'MacKie' who originally rented the corner in Victorian times.


The corner was badly damaged in the town fire which devastated Havelock House (that fire is extensively covered here) on the opposite corner in 1898, but the main structure, cupola & clock survived & are still named MacKies corner.
Next, an interesting trade card for 'Drury & Son' - a 'Raphael Tuck and Sons', 'Oilette', postcard, mailed at Sunderland on Oct. 27, 1905. An e-Bay item which was sold for U.S. 19.00 on May 3, 2010. The reverse of the card promoted Drury & Son's felt hats, with wording that you can, with difficulty, read here.

And next another interesting Tuck 'Oilette' advertising postcard that was sold on e-Bay on Aug. 31, 2012. On the other side of the card it reads - 'We are Specialists in Farmers' Clothing, Tweeds for Hard-wear, Driving and Riding Waterproofs, Aprons and Gloves. We are noted among Hunting men, Jockeys and Huntsmen for Riding Breeches & Leggings. Drury & Son.' The bull depicted was, it would seem, the prize winning bull that won the 'Drury's Challenge Bowl'. Posted on May 26, 1905. The listing image was enlarged for better presentation here.


To start the subject off, here is a section of an 1896 Ordnance Survey map showing the Ford Paper Mill (Works) site at Hylton.

An interesting image, dating from about 1949, of the unloading of esparto grass at Corporation Quay - esparto grass destined for the Hendon and Ford papermills. A fine image ex 'Sunderland Tugs and Shipbuilding in pictures' on Facebook, here.


Some day in the near future I would like to add a page that features Sunderland's tug boats. But today I have but limited material on the subject. I do however have, to start things off, an image of Steam Tug 'Biddick', at Sunderland on May 31, 1966. In what I believe is a D. L. Chatfield image.

And an image of steam tug Roker, of 119 tons, built in 1904 by J. P. Rennoldson, at South Shields. Taken in 1964 at Methil, Scotland. A larger complete image can be seen here.


An 17th century print of Finchale Priory, sometimes referred to as Finchale Abbey, a 13th century Benedictine priory, the remains of which are located beside the River Wear, four miles N. of Durham. A print which sold via e-Bay on Oct. 26, 2014 for U.S. $49.95. The print, 11 x 6 3/8 in. in size (engraved area) was engraved by Daniel King & published in London in 1682 by 'Wilkinson, Dring and Harper'. A slightly larger image of the print can be seen here.

A Wikipedia page about the priory. And another fine page.


A partial image of, to the webmaster at least, an unknown Sunderland church. Described by the e-Bay vendor as being 'Photo Sunderland Venerable Bede Monk Street 1940s', which description has unfortunately not permitted the webmaster to identify the specific church via a Google search. Can you identify it? And tell us about it? Doris Hahn has kindly suggested (thanks!) that it may well be an image of the Venerable Bede Anglican Church, of Monkwearmouth, which church was created in 1871 from Monkwearmouth All Saints and Monkwearmouth St. Peter, & was demolished in the early 1960s.

But, in Feb. 2017 we are told, by Allison O'Brien in a guestbook message, that the church is for sure St. Luke's Parish Church, Pallion. Allison writes - 'the black and white photo of the church is St. Luke's, Pallion. My parents were married there in 1963. The church is still standing minus the spire. I remember my nana taking me in the 1970s to jumble sales in the church hall and in the summer the rectory gardens were also used.' A modest, more recent image of the church is available (via this page) of the church. If you compare the images the church is the same, still with a tower but no longer with the spire atop the tower.

The print, a Sunderland Echo image, sold via e-Bay on Oct. 27, 2014 for GBP 4.99. A complete & larger image of the print can be seen here.


A pleasing postcard image of the village of Whitburn, dating from 1906. A recent (Jan. 2015) e-Bay item. Click the image to view the card in a larger size.

May I suggest that you navigate the site via the index on page 001.PRIOR PAGE / NEXT PAGE

To Thomas M. M. Hemy datapage 41. All of the other Thomas Hemy pages, including image pages, are accessible though the 'Hemy' index on page 05.

To the Special Pages Index.

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